Leopold Potsch

Leopold Potsch


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Leopold Poetsch was born on 18th November 1853. He began his history teaching career in Maribor and later moved to Linz. He held strong nationalist opinions on the subject and believed that all ethnic Germans should be united by a single government. He also held strong racist views and told his pupils that Jews and Slavs were members of "inferior races".

In 1901 Adolf Hitler joined Poetsch's history class. William L. Shirer, the author of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1964), has commented: "There was one teacher at the Linz High School who exercised a strong and, as it turned out, a fateful influence on the young Adolf Hitler. This was a history teacher, Dr Leopold Poetsch, who came from the southern German-language border region where it meets that of the South Slavs and whose experience with the racial struggle there had made him a fanatical German nationalist."

Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf (1925): "Dr. Leopold Potsch, my professor at the Realschule in Linz, embodied this requirement to an ideal degree. This old gentleman's manner was as kind as it was determined, his dazzling eloquence not only held us spellbound but actually carried us away. Even today I think back with gentle emotion on this gray-haired man who, by the fire of his narratives, sometimes made us forget the present; who, as if by enchantment, carried us into past times and, out of the millennial veils of mist, molded dry historical memories into living reality. On such occasions we sat there, often aflame with enthusiasm, and sometimes even moved to tears. What made our good fortune all the greater was that this teacher knew how to illuminate the past by examples from the present, and how from the past to draw inferences for the present. As a result he had more understanding than anyone else for all the daily problems which then held us breathless. He used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating us, frequently appealing to our sense of national honor. By this alone he was able to discipline us little ruffians more easily than would have been possible by any other means. This teacher made history my favorite subject. And indeed, though he had no such intention, it was then that I became a little revolutionary. For who could have studied German history under such a teacher without becoming an enemy of the state which, through its ruling house, exerted so disastrous an influence on the destinies of the nation? And who could retain his loyalty to a dynasty which in past and present betrayed the needs of the German people again and again for shameless private advantage?"

Leopold Poetsch died on 16th October 1942.

Dr. This old gentleman's manner was as kind as it was determined, his dazzling eloquence not only held us spellbound but actually carried us away.

Even today I think back with gentle emotion on this gray-haired man who, by the fire of his narratives, sometimes made us forget the present; who, as if by enchantment, carried us into past times and, out of the millennial veils of mist, molded dry historical memories into living reality. On such occasions we sat there, often aflame with enthusiasm, and sometimes even moved to tears.

What made our good fortune all the greater was that this teacher knew how to illuminate the past by examples from the present, and how from the past to draw inferences for the present. By this alone he was able to discipline us little ruffians more easily than would have been possible by any other means.

This teacher made history my favorite subject. For who could have studied German history under such a teacher without becoming an enemy of the state which, through its ruling house, exerted so disastrous an influence on the destinies of the nation? And who could retain his loyalty to a dynasty which in past and present betrayed the needs of the German people again and again for shameless private advantage?

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Adolf Hitler's Early Life (Answer Commentary)

Heinrich Himmler and the SS (Answer Commentary)

Trade Unions in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

Adolf Hitler v John Heartfield (Answer Commentary)

Hitler's Volkswagen (The People's Car) (Answer Commentary)

Women in Nazi Germany (Answer Commentary)

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Leopold II of Belgium

Leopold II [1] (9 April 1835 – 17 December 1909) was the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and, through his own efforts, the owner and absolute ruler of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908.

    : Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor : Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor : Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor

Born in Brussels as the second but eldest surviving son of Leopold I and Louise of Orléans, he succeeded his father to the Belgian throne in 1865 and reigned for 44 years until his death—the longest reign of any Belgian monarch. He died without surviving legitimate sons. The current Belgian king descends from his nephew and successor, Albert I.

Leopold was the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken on his own behalf. He used Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo, the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, the colonial nations of Europe authorized his claim by committing the Congo Free State to improving the lives of the native inhabitants. Leopold ignored these conditions and ran the Congo using the mercenary Force Publique for his personal gain. He extracted a fortune from the territory, initially by the collection of ivory, and after a rise in the price of natural rubber in the 1890s, by forced labour from the native population to harvest and process rubber.

Leopold's administration of the Congo Free State was characterised by atrocities, including torture and murder, resulting from notorious systematic brutality. In 1890, George Washington Williams coined the term "crimes against humanity" to describe the practices of Leopold II of Belgium's administration of the Congo Free State. [2] The hands of men, women, and children were amputated when the quota of rubber was not met and millions of the Congolese people died. Colonial accounts typically emphasized Leopold's modernizing changes in the Congo and not the mass death he facilitated.

These and other facts were established at the time by eyewitness testimony, on-site inspection by an international commission of inquiry, and the 1904 Casement Report. Modern estimates range from 1 million to 15 million deaths, with a consensus growing around 10 million. [3] [4] [5] Some historians argue against these figures, citing the lack of reliable censuses, the enormous mortality caused by smallpox and African trypanosomiasis, and the fact that there were only 175 administrative agents in charge of rubber exploitation. [6] [7] In 1908, the reports of deaths and abuse and pressure from the Congo Reform Association and other international groups induced the Belgian government to take over the administration of the Congo from Leopold as a new territory, Belgian Congo.


Leopold Poetsch

Leopold Poetsch (or Pötsch) (18 November 1853 – 16 October 1942) was an Austrian history teacher. He was a high school teacher of Adolf Hitler and influenced the future leader's later views.

Poetsch came from the southern German border regions. There, political struggles between Slavs and ethnic Germans angered him and turned him into a loud and fiery proponent of the Pan-German movement. He began teaching in Maribor, and later moved to Linz to teach history.

Poetsch was Hitler's teacher from first through third grade (1901–04) in geography, and in second and third grade in history. He also ran the school library. As a special privilege, Hitler was allowed to bring his teacher maps, which put him in particularly close contact with him. Aside from his service at the school, Poetsch was a much sought after official speaker. He spoke at German national associations but also on the occasion of the emperor's anniversary in 1908. In 1905, he joined the Linz city council as a representative of the German People's party.

Hitler became enamored of Poetsch as a teenager, captivated by the professor's fiery speeches. Poetsch was a fervent pan-German. Poetsch despised the Habsburgs and forcefully argued that all ethnic Germans should be united by a single government. Like many Austro-Germans, Poetsch wanted to see the old empire break up and Austria join Germany, to the north.

He asserted that the Aryan race was stronger, healthier, and more fit to rule than any other people. Poetsch declared that Jews and Slavs were what he termed "inferior races".

Hitler hated all his classes except Poetsch's history class. Hitler was captivated by Poetsch's teachings and began regularly reading a local anti-Semitic newspaper. Poetsch captured the imagination of his young students with heroic tales of the ancient Teutons and German victories. In his later years, Hitler spoke of Poetsch as a "great man." As dictator of Germany, Hitler attempted to unite all German-speaking people, just as Poetsch's lectures had demanded, and persecuted Slavs, Jews, Gypsies, and other minorities, eventually attempting to exterminate them in the "Final Solution".

Hitler stated that "Poetsch used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating us, frequently appealing to us our sense of national honor." Under Poetsch, Hitler came to the realization that: "Germanism could be safeguarded only by the destruction of Austria, and, furthermore, the national sentiment is in no sense identical with dynastic patriotism that above all the house of Habsburg was destined to be the misfortune of the German national."

Poetsch gave popular slide lectures entitled "Images of German History." In them he strongly emphasized the Germanic era and the time of the early German emperors before the rule of the Habsburgs and proceeded to pinpoint the German national awakening up until the Franco-Prussian war. The following is a quote from one of his speeches: Since the great days of the magnificent German victories of the years 1870–71, we have become increasingly conscious of our German identity and now thumb more ardently through the books of German myth, legends and history.

However, during those Hitler's teenage years while he may have been inspired by Leopold Poetsch's class, he was not motivated enough to become involved in politics. His only obsession was to become an artist.

Though a fervent pan-German, Poetsch was also an Austrian patriot at the same time. Later in life, Poetsch was very annoyed when he discovered that in Mein Kampf he received high praise as a teacher but at the same time was denounced as an enemy of Austria. In reference to Poetsch, Hitler wrote: "For who could have studied German history under such a teacher without becoming an enemy of the state which, through its ruling house, exerted so disastrous an influence on the destinies of the nation. And who could retain a loyalty to a dynasty that . betrayed the needs of the German people again and again for shameless private advantage."

In 1936, when some teachers in Linz sent their now-famous pupil photos to remind him of them, and they asked Poetsch to join them, he refused, arguing that he did not agree with Hitler in his defamation of Austria as he had sworn an official oath for Austria.


Leopold Potsch - History

Hitler was born in the Austrian Waldviertel region, near the Bohemian border, at Braunau-am-Inn, in 1889.
It was an area steeped in poverty and well known for its inbreeding. It was also a town which had produced a surprising number of spiritualist mediums, including the famous Schneider brothers (1).
Perhaps something more sinister than simple peasant frolicking was occurring in the woods and hills around the town. Alois Schicklgruber, Hitler's father, was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber.



In 1842 Maria Anna Schicklgruber married Johan Georg Hiedler the name was originally Czech.
In 1877, Alois Schicklgruber had his step-father's name, Heidler, inserted into his birth certificate, by the local priest.

The name, however, was misspelt as 'Hitler', and from then on Hitler's father was known as Alois Hitler (see right). Hitler's father eventually became an Austrian Customs Official.

Deriving from farming stock, he had substantially bettered himself, having risen to the lower middles class. (right - Hitler's first schoolroom)

According to Hitler's later reminiscences, his father was strict and their relationship lacked any normal warmth.



At eight years of age Hitler was sent to the school of the Monastery of Lambach (see left) Klara Hitler (see right) had hopes of her son becoming a priest where he revelled in the pomp and solemnity of Catholic ritual.
It was at Lambach that Hitler first saw the swastika (see right below), which appeared on the heraldic arms which decorated the Baroque choir stalls, where he sang in the Monastery Church on feast days.

Like Liebenfels, Hitler was not considered suitable for a religious life, despite the fact that he was top of his class.
On 2 February 1900 Hitler's younger brother, Edmund, died of measles.
Adolf was also ill, but recovered, although for the rest of his childhood and boyhood he was considered a 'sickly youth'.
To Klara, the death was like a hammer blow and brought back the memories of the three children she had lost twelve years before.
To the ten year old Adolf, who had been very close to his younger brother, the death left a lasting wound.
After the church service he stood in a driving snowstorm and watched while his little brother was lowered into his grave.
In the future, anytime Adolf looked out of his bedroom window he was reminded of Edmund who's grave was visible from his window.
He became moody, dispirited and withdrawn.
The death of Edmund deeply affected Hitler, whose character changed from being confident and outgoing, and an excellent student, to a morose, detached, and sullen boy who constantly fought his father and his teachers.
One of Adolf's playmates remembered that Adolf would also climb the hill behind his house at night and talk to a "nonexistent audience."
It is here that we see Hitler's first contact with that 'other world' that would play such a large part in his later life.


In 1898, the family moved to Leonding, just outside Linz, and Hitler attended the Gymnasium at nearby Steyr.
It was there that the young Adolf met August Kubizek probably the only close, personal friend he ever had.

In 1902, when Hitler was thirteen years old, his father died.
At school his academic work deteriorated and he became moody and difficult. His mother, who had never been firm with him, was now unable to control him, and although he was no delinquent, he was self willed and obstinate.
Strangely Hitler attended the school at the same time as the young Wittgenstein (see right) - they were born six days apart - however they were not in the same class as Hitler had to repeat a year.
There is no evidence that they were on friendly or unfriendly terms, although some odd theories have been published suggesting that Wittgenstein was the source of Hitler's anti-Semitism.



Dr. Leopold Potsch

There is, in fact, little evidence that Hitler was any more anti-Semitic that the majority of gentile Christian Austrians in his youth.

(1) Willi and Rudi Schneider were born in Braunau. Their father was a Linotype compositor who lived with his wife and six sons, close by his workshop. Willi, the elder brother, first went into trances in 1919, when he was sixteen. Willi's control was 'Olga', who claimed to have been Lola Montez, the mistress of Ludwig I of Bavaria. Willi was capable of producing materialisations of spirits and despite being tested under rigorous scientific conditions in Munich, Vienna and London from 1922 until 1927, no explanation has been advanced for such phenomena. Willi's powers faded after 1927, but Rudi's then began to develop. Rudi was also tested under rigorous scientific conditions in Munich,Vienna, Paris and London and no evidence of fraud was ever forthcoming.
After 1934 Rudi's powers also began to fade, and he died in obscurity in Braunau in 1957.

(2) Leopold Poetsch (or Pötsch) (18 November 1853 - 16 October 1942) was a German Professor and a high school history teacher of Adolf Hitler who influenced the future leader's later views.
He was also one of the major figures of the German People's Party. Poetsch came from the southern German border regions. There, political struggles between Slavs and ethnic Germans angered him and turned him into a loud and fiery proponent of the Pan-German movement. He began teaching in Maribor, and later moved to Linz to teach history.


Linz Opera House
After the strange events subsequent to Edmund's death, the next evidence of Hitler's involvement with occult, and psychic phenomena occurred after a performance of Wagner's 'Rienzi' that he and Kubizek attended at the Linz Opera House.

To quote Kubizek:

'I t was the most impressive hour I ever lived through with my friend.
So unforgettable is it, that even the most trivial things, the clothes Adolf wore that evening, the weather, are still present in my mind as though the experience were exempt from the passing of time.
Adolf stood outside my house in his black overcoat, his dark hat pulled down over his face.
My friend, his hands thrust into his coat pockets, silent and withdrawn, strode through the streets and out of the city.
Usually, after an artistic experience that had moved him, he would start talking straight away, sharply criticizing the performance, but after 'Rienzi' he remained quiet a long while.
This surprised me, and I asked him what he thought of it.
He threw me a strange, almost hostile glance.
"Shut up !" he said brusquely.
The cold, damp mist lay oppressively over the narrow streets.
Our solitary steps resounded on the pavement.
Adolf took the road that led up to the Freinberg. Without speaking a word, he strode forward.
He looked almost sinister, and paler than ever.
His turned-up coat collar increased this impression.
I wanted to ask him, "Where are you going ?" - but his pallid face looked so forbidding that I suppressed the question.
As if propelled by an invisible force, Adolf climbed up to the top of the Freinberg.
And only now did I realize that we were no longer in solitude and darkness, for the stars shone brilliantly above us.
Adolf stood in front of me and now he gripped both my hands and held them tight.
He had never made such a gesture before.
I felt from the grasp of his hands how deeply moved he was.
His eyes were feverish with excitement.
The words did not come smoothly from his mouth as they usually did, but rather erupted, hoarse and raucous.
From his voice I could tell even more how much this experience had shaken him.
Gradually his speech loosened, and the words flowed more freely.
Never before and never again have I heard Adolf Hitler speak as he did in that hour, as we stood there alone under the stars, as though we were the only creatures in the world.
I cannot repeat every word that my friend uttered.
I was struck by something strange, which I had never noticed before, even when he had talked to me in moments of the greatest excitement.
It was as if 'another being' spoke out of his body, and moved him as much as it did me.
It wasn't at all a case of a speaker being carried away by his own words.
On the contrary I rather felt as though he himself listened with astonishment and emotion to what burst forth from him with elementary force.
I will not attempt to interpret this phenomenon, but it was a state of complete ecstasy and rapture, in which he transferred the character of 'Rienzi', without even mentioning him as a model or example, with visionary power to the plane of his own ambitions.'


Hitler and Winifred Wagner

Hitler never forgot that night - and described it in detail to Winifred Wagner, declaring that: '

' For in this countenance the eyes were so outstanding that one didn't notice anything else.
Never in my life have I seen any other person whose appearance - how shall I put it - was so completely dominated by the eyes.
They were the light eyes of his mother, but her somewhat staring, penetrating gaze was even more marked in the son and had even more force and expressiveness.
It was uncanny how these eyes could change their expression, especially when Adolf was speaking.
To me his sonorous voice meant much less than the expression of his eyes.
In fact, Adolf spoke with his eyes, and even when his lips were silent one knew what he wanted to say.
When he first came to our house, and I introduced him to my mother, she said to me in the evening, "What eyes your friend has!"
And I remember quite distinctly that there was more fear than admiration in her words.
If I am asked where one could perceive, in his youth, this man's exceptional qualities, I can only answer, "In the eyes."
Professor Trevor-Roper concurs: ‘Hitler had the eyes of a hypnotist which seduced the wits and affections of all who yielded to their power." One does not acquire such power by accident ! Goebbels wrote about his first meeting with Hitler: "I was fascinated by Hitlers blue eyes. ". Traudl Junge, Hitler's last secretary often told in interviews, that ". people were amazed about Hitler's blue eyes. ". Martha Dodd writes in her book that, "Hitler's eyes were startling and unforgettable - they seemed pale blue in color, were intense, unwavering, hypnotic."
In 1907, when Hitler was eighteen (see right), he stayed with his godparents Johan and Joanna Prinz, in Vienna, whilst taking his entrance examination for the Academy of Fine Arts (see below).

Shocked by his failure to pass, he was further shaken by the death of his mother.
Sometime after his return from Vienna, Hitler and Kubizek visit St. Georgen on the River Gusen, the site of an ancient German battle - a strange comment - and a further indication that Hitler was becoming involved in the occult.

When Klara Hitler died in December 1907, it was a terrible shock for
her son Adolf Hitler.
The Jewish family doctor Dr. Bloch testified that he 'never met such a desperate soul in his career'.

When Hitler was born at the end of the 19th century, the country of Germany had not even fought in one World War. By the time he died, Adolf Hitler had helped fight in one World War and had started another. This son of a civil servant would change the world in countless ways and cause the deaths of millions. Hitler’s experiences in life before becoming the leader of the Third Reich of Nazi Germany would help shape him into the man who would eventually become one of the most recognizable names in the 20th century.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th 1889 in a small town called Braunau into a family that would sharply influence his beliefs (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). He was the son of Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl and was technically their fourth child but the previous three all did not survive to make it into their adult lives, making him the focus of their attention until they had two more children. Alois had a son from a previous marriage who did not live up to his high expectations and eventually ended up in jail for theft (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). This bothered Hitler’s father greatly and he vowed that he would not fail his next son and do whatever it took to make him into a proper man. Alois was a very intense and angry father and would beat Adolf if he didn’t do exactly as he was told. The household Adolf Hitler grew up in was not the most pleasant place to be and he had only his mother to turn to for comfort.
The family tree of Adolf Hitler indicates a few reasons that he would turn out to behave the way he did. The man who was Adolf’s grandfather remains a mystery the only documentation of his father’s birth says that a unmarried servant girl named Maria Anna Schicklgruber who gave birth to Alois but “In the registry of births in Dollersheim parish the
space for the name of the child’s father was left blank” (Fest, 1974, p.15). There are different stories floating around about who is the true grandfather but the most intriguing one is the one that would give that distinction to a Jewish man named Frankenberger. Maria was working in his house at the time that she became pregnant and when Hans Frank who was Hitler’s lawyer later looked into this idea, he found some evidence that would indicate that Frankenberger was the actual grandfather. However nothing that could be proved ever came of this but “its real significance is independent of it being true or false. What is psychologically of crucial importance is that fact that Frank’s findings forced Hitler to doubt his own descent” (15). Throughout his life, Hitler would try to hide his family history due to the shame he would feel if he discovered that he was related to the group of people that he despised most.
Alois Hitler’s involvement in his son’s life played a strong role in what Hitler would grow up to be. Alois was described a man who was “hard, unsympathetic and short tempered” (Bullock, 1962, 25). To make matters even worse, “The Hitler household now consisted of Adolf, little brother Edmund, little sister Paula, older half-brother Alois Jr., older half-sister Angela and two parents who were home all the time” (The Histoy Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). All the noise from everyone jammed into the small living quarters did not improve Alois’ mood much during his peaceful retirement and he took it out on the children. Adolf’s step brother received most of the beatings and harsh words due to his being the oldest until finally one day he couldn’t take it anymore and ran away. This made Adolf next in line to obtain all the attention that Alois felt was necessary to guide his boys. His father, with his domineering and harsh style of parenting would help to make Hitler into a man who lacked empathy for (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). The reason behind many of Adolf’s failures at school at least according to him was that he was doing poorly in order to spite his father. Their poor relationship led him to want to go against anything his father wanted. Alois due to his commanding nature thought “It was simply inconceivable to him that I might reject what had become the content of his whole life” ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p.8). At this time, the Hitler family moved from their small farm home into the town of Lambach, Austria where Hitler would learn the importance of religion.
By going to school at a monastery, Hitler gained a special insight into the lives of men who made speeches for a living and controlled the lives of others. Hitler “especially admired the Abbot in charge, who ruled his black-robbed monks with supreme authority. At home Hitler sometimes played priest and even included long sermons” (The Histoy Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). The lifestyle of a priest appealed greatly to Hitler, he loved the idea of giving speeches to many and the power they had over the people that listened to his words and those working under him. Also found around the monastery, were swastikas carved into wood and other things which Hitler would have seen almost every day by going to school there (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). This symbol obviously had a great impact on him due to the fact that he made the swastika the symbol of the Nazi’s that would become one of the most well recognized images worldwide. Also during this time, Hitler was placed in many situations where he had to make a decision on where his loyalties lie. Being a German-Austrian in Hitler’s eyes had three schools of thought you were either “The fighters, the lukewarm, and the traitors” (Mein Kampf, 1927, 12). Adolf Hitler was of course a fighter, which meant that he stood for “Pan-Germanism of the Los-von-Rom movement founded by Ritter Georg von Schonerer” (10). This movement was all about reuniting Germany with the parts of Austria that had become separated and also
importantly Schonerer’s movement was very strongly anti-Semitic. Hitler at this young age did not believe in the Pan-German movement which is very easy to confuse with Pan-Germanism but each has a completely different message. People who followed the Pan-German ideas were completely for the idea of German overtaking the entire world. Adolf was still able to partake in the struggle between the different views in Austria, whenever donations were taken for the school, Hitler and his fellow mates would wear corn flowers with red, gold, and black colors. This type of flower was the emblem of Germans loyal to the imperial House of Hohenzollern which was a royal monarchy that unified Germany and created the German empire. Hitler also stayed true to his beliefs in other ways, “Heil was our greeting, and instead of the imperial anthem we sang ‘Deutschland uber Allies,’ despite warnings and punishments.” (Mein Kampf, 1927, 13). This time at the monastery would act as a beginning to his views of politics and fueled his fanaticism of being a German Nationalist. However all good things must come to an end and Alois Hitler decided the family needed to move again to the town of Leonding where he would begin primary school.
Adolf Hitler’s academic career would provide many important experiences in affecting the man who would become leader of the Third Reich. In 1895 which was the same year that Adolf would begin primary school, his father also retired from his job as for the Austrian civil service. This was not good for Hitler because:
This meant a double dose of supervision, discipline and regimentation under the watchful eyes of teachers at school and his strict father at home. His father, now 58, had spent most of his life working his way up through the civil service ranks. He was used to giving orders and
having them obeyed and also expected this from his children. (The Histoy Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996) Adolf began his education by doing “extremely well at primary school and it appeared he had a bright academic future in front of him. He was also popular with other pupils and was much admired for his leadership qualities” (Fest, 1974, p.19). Adolf had become somewhat of a gang leader at his primary school, and this part of his life served as the start of his developing leadership qualities. Also during his time at primary school, Adolf discovered that he enjoyed drawing very much and it was something that he cared about very strongly. Most of the teachers at school thought Adolf was lazy and lacked self control. However not every teacher had such a negative view of Adolf and one there was one teacher who made such an impact that he stood out above all the rest in Hitler’s academic career. Dr. Leopold Potsch was Adolf’s history professor at the Realschule (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). For Hitler, he has fond memories of this old man who by the passion of his tales and ability to make them forget the present, Hitler would sit in his seat aflame with fervor, and often times he was moved to tears. Adolf said that he and Dr. Potsch would sit and talk for long periods of time talking about their shared sense of intense national pride. . Potsch filled Adolf’s mind with exciting stories of past national heroes of Germany, and the idea of being a champion of his country thrilled Hitler to no end. His professor told him tales “of the German victories over France in 1870 and 1871 and attacked the Austrians for not becoming involved in these triumphs” (Spartacus Educational). What helped to make him special was that Dr. Potsch was very good at showing how past events influenced the present and showed how present events mirror the past. The professor had a special connection to the students and:
“He used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a meaning of educating us, frequently appealing to our sense of national honor. By this alone he was able to discipline us life ruffians more easily than would have been possible by any other means. This teacher made history my favorite subject. And indeed, though he had no such intention, it was then that I became a revolutionary. For who could have studied German history under such a teacher without becoming an enemy of the state which, through its ruling house, exerted so disastrous an influence on the destinies of the nation? And who could retain his loyalty to a dynasty which in past and present betrayed the needs of the German people again and again for shameless private advantage? Did we not know, even as little boys, that this Austrian state had and could have no love for us Germans”.(Mein Kampf, 1927, 14-15)
From this young age Adolf was able to decide in his mind that the only way to keep Germanism safe was by destroying Austria. This way of thinking that stayed with him for the majority of his life showed that he had an “ardent love for my German-Austrian homeland, deep hatred for the Austrian state” (16).
Art allowed Hitler to express himself but the rejections that came along with it forced him to change the lifestyle he had hoped to have. Growing up, Adolf found that he and had a good amount of talent went it came to drawing and it became one of his passions throughout his life. During his time at the Realschule, Hitler in his own opinion was the best in his class at drawing and therefore received a lot of high praise for his work. All the compliments Adolf got from people started to go to his head and his view of his own art became very overrated in comparison to the artists that were already out in the real world. Art also was something that was a means to become someone of importance in society. Adolf vowed that he would never have a desk job like his father and art would be his pursuit of a “better class of society” (Fest, 1974, p. 20-21). Adolf Hitler would never be okay with having a normal job like the rest of society and now with his father not controlling his life, he would be one step closer to forging his own path. In the final few months of his mother’s sickness, Adolf decided to take a trip to Vienna to take an entrance exam for the art Academy. When the results came back, Hitler was struck by a crushing blow when he learned that he had not been accepted into school of painting ( Mein Kampf, 1925, pp. 19-20). After thinking so highly of his skills and having everyone else around him admire his ability for so long he just was not able to comprehend how a school would not want his superior talent. However after speaking to the director at the school he recommended that Adolf apply for the architecture school there because he believed Adolf was good enough in that field to be accepted (20). Hitler accepted his fate but ran into a few problems when he learned about what was required to gain entrance to the school. In order to apply for the school of architecture, Hitler had to have a high school diploma and then attend the building school at Technik. However due to his stubbornness and refusal to do well in school in order to spite his father, he did not any of the credentials required. With his mother no longer around, Adolf Hitler returned to Vienna for the third time in order to regain his composure. After being down on himself for not making it into art school, he regained his defiance and was determined “…to become an architect, and obstacles do not exist to be surrendered to, but only to be broken” ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 20). Looking back on these times in his life Hitler is grateful for these days because even though they seemed miserable at the time, his will to get through anything was strengthened. Adolf said:
I owe it to that period that I grew hard and am still capable of being hard. And even more, I exalt it for tearing me away from the hollowness of comfortable life for drawing the mother’s darling our of his soft downy bed and giving him ‘Dame Care’ for a new mother for hurling me, despite all resistance, into a world of misery and poverty, thus making me acquainted with those for whom I was later to fight. ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 21)
As he did with many problems he faced during his life, Hitler was able to find a way to blame the Jewish people for problems with the world of the arts. In referring to the Jews, Hitler said “Culturally he contaminates art, literature, the theater, makes a mockery of natural feeling, overthrows all concepts of beauty and sublimity, of the noble and the good, and instead drags men down into the sphere of his own base nature”(Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 326).
Klara Hitler was a kind and gentle woman, who was a big part of Adolf Hitler’s childhood. She was the only person that he had a strong emotional bond with and she was the person that he always turned to when things with his father got too rough, Adolf said “I had honored my father, but my mother I had loved” ( Mein Kampf, 1925 p. 18). Klara Hitler however had many health problems for much of the time Adolf was living away from the family and therefore was not always around to help him with problems he may have been having. Due to her anxiety about losing all her other children except for two, Adolf’s mother was too soft on him and Hitler used this to his advantage whenever possible (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). Even though she was not as passionate as Alois was to see Adolf become a civil servant, she still tried to keep with her husband’s wishes after he passed away and keep Adolf in school. On the day of September, 1904, Adolf would only be promoted to the next level of schooling if he were to leave that school. This marked his mother’s last attempt at getting him the education his father wanted, “She sent him to Realschule in Steyr” (Bullock, 1962, p. 20). Still though even with his father gone, his grades did not improve and his work was very poor. Adolf did so badly his first term at this new school that he went out and got drunk for the first time in his life and used the report card as toilet paper. However he still continued at the Realschule for one more semester but was still unable to make any improvements and finally his mother gave in to his request and allowed him to leave the school. Hitler was now free to try to fulfill his dream of becoming an artist and even his mother becoming gravely ill wouldn’t stop him from leaving for Vienna. This was a prime example of how Hitler’s ambition for personal success would trump any thoughts of human empathy. After failing to gain entrance into Vienna’s art school, Hitler was humiliated and was unable to even tell his mother that he was rejected and he still pretended like he was still an art student (Spartacus Educational). Hitler was able to entrance millions by the speeches he gave about Germany and what the Nazi Party would do for them to get them back what was rightfully theirs, however when it came for him to talk about himself there was much less discussion. At a period in his life where he may have needed some guidance or just a place to gather himself after the failure, Hitler didn’t take advantage of the people around and kept everything to himself. It took for Klara Hitler to pass away for Adolf to finally return home to see her one last time. At the time of her death, Hitler returned to his home and spoke with the doctor who said “he had never seen a young man so crushed by anguish and filled with grief…With the death of his mother, whatever affection he had ever had for any human being came to an end” (Fest, 1974, p. 28). Hitler lost the one person who he had turned to when his father’s beatings were too much or when things got too hard for him as a small child. Even though he was more distant from her as he moved off to Vienna, he still had a special bond with her that would not be shared as closely with anyone else. From that day on, Hitler “carried her photograph wherever he went and, it is claimed, had it in his hand when he died in 1945” (Spartacus Educational). Now Hitler had nobody to rely on but himself to get him to where he wanted to be in life. The illness of hit mother had used up the majority of the money his father had left to the family after his death and the small amount of pension money he received would not be enough for him to survive. Now was the time for Hitler to make something of himself and to “wrest from Fate what my father had accomplished fifty years before I, too, wanted to become ‘something’—but on no account a civil servant” ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 18).
Literature would also provide to be another important influence on the ideas and beliefs of Adolf Hitler. For Adolf, reading had a different importance than for what is what for the average intellectual of that time period. He understood that people were able to read books and have great deals of knowledge stored in their mind, however what set him apart according to him was that he was able to determine what was useful and what information was worthless in a book. According to Adolf, “Reading is not an end in itself, but a means to an end” (Bullock, 1962, p. 48). These attitudes would help show not only his Hitler’s attitude towards books but towards life as well.
This is a picture of a man with a closed mind, reading only to confirm what he already believes, ignoring what does not fit in with his preconceived scheme. ‘Otherwise, Hitler says, ‘only a confused jumble of chaotic notions will result from all this reading…Such a person never succeeds in turning his knowledge to practical account when the opportune moment arrives for his mental equipment is not ordered with a view to meeting the demands of every day… ‘Since then (i.e. since his days in Vienna) I have extended that foundation very little, and I have changed nothing in it. (Bullock, 1962 p. 49)
After reading a book about the Franco-Prussian war, Hitler’s sense of national pride would never be the same. When reading the book Adolf felt a strong connection to the men of Germany who fought for their country. However he was unable to grasp why the men of Austria including his father chose not to fight (Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 6). He strongly disagreed with their choice of not going to war because he felt that the men of Germany and Austria were of the same blood. Hitler said “Are we not the same as all other Germans? Do we not all belong together? This problem began to gnaw at my little brain for the first time” (Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 7). It was this book that caused him to strongly want to unite the area around the country of Germany because he felt that the men of Germany and Austria should come together as one. Also all the talk of fighting and battles excited Hitler very much and he became quite interested in the idea of battles and being a soldier. The book caused him to believe that all men should be honored to fight for their country. He also believed that national pride should lead men to be willing to die for their country because that is what they are meant to do for the good of their people. World War I would only help to enforce Hitler’s sense of national pride and would give him military experience that he would use in the future to further for his own ideals. When Franz Ferdinand was murdered by Serbian students, at Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, Hitler was unsure initially at how he felt about this event (Bullock, 1962, p. 49). Ferdinand caused many problems that made many German Nationalists quite enraged, however another way to look at it was that his country of Austria would be duty-bound to fight in the war. Austria would also have to stay faithful to Germany which Hitler always believed was bound to happen (Bullock, 1962 pp. 49-50). The amount of joy that Hitler felt at finally being given the change to reunite Germany was so great that he fell to the ground and thanked the heavens( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 161). The war finally gave Hitler a way to prove himself as a man of worth to his country. After all his past failures, the war would serve as a fresh start, which with his poor childhood would be greatly welcomed. Adolf Hitler believed that entire population wished for this war to happen and couldn’t see how anyone else could have a different view. Hitler volunteered to fight in the war however he did not choose to fight for the country of Germany. He ended up writing a formal petition to the King of Bavaria asking to be allowed into a Bavarian regiment. The reply granted his request and he was overjoyed beyond belief at the idea of being able to fight for the land he felt loyal to (Bullock, 1962, p. 50). A few of the other men he met during this time in his regiment which included many volunteers, ended up working for him in the Nazi Party. This time of his life would help to connect him to the people that he had blocked himself off from as a younger man. When his unit finally began fighting, Hitler was assigned the job of a Meldeganger which means that he was dispatch runner who sent messages between the command staff in the back of the camp and up to the units fighting in the front (The Histoy Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). Hitler was very eager and was generally liked by the other soldiers however some thought that he was too enthusiastic to please his superiors. He had the uncanny ability to escape danger which was lucky for him due to the fact that he would always volunteer his services for the most dangerous missions. Hitler’s bravery ended up getting many honors including the highly esteemed Iron Cross medal during World War I (Spartacus Educational). The Iron Cross medal which is a quite rare honor for the foot soldiers such as Hitler to earn, was recommended for Adolf by a lieutenant who just happened to be a Jew (The History Place: The Rise of Hitler, 1996). This was a fact that Hitler would pretend like never happened and when it was brought up, only talked about the honor and not the man who gave him the chance to earn it. The members in his unit found Adolf to be peculiar and strange, and a fellow soldier named Hans Mend “claimed that Hitler was an isolated figure who spent long periods of time sitting in the corner holding his head in silence. Then all of a sudden, Mend claimed, he would jump up and make a speech” (Spartacus Educational). Due to this strange behavior, Hitler was never promoted within the regiment past the rank of corporal. Fellow soldiers within the regiment would His superiors believed that Hitler’s odd outbursts and poor companionship within the group would make it difficult for other men to take orders from him (Spartacus Educational).
The media and politicians during the war also played a role in how Hitler’s views on certain aspects of society were formed. Adolf said there was “a certain section of the press,slowly, and in a way which at first was perhaps unrecognizable to many, began to pour a few drops of wormwood into the general enthusiasm” ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 166). This group of media had different ideas about how Germans should behave during the war effort. They were not fond of great displays of emotion and believed that Germany should act more like other foreign countries who accepted their battle victories with a “silent and dignified form of joy” (166-167). Hitler even as a younger man was known to have sudden outbursts of passion filled speeches overflowing with his emotions and couldn’t understand why people would want to control that. He believed that the country needed this show of passion to be able to withstand the struggle which would overtake their country during World War I ( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 167). Adolf Hitler was never able to understand this type of thinking and it was something that would be changed when he became leader of the Third Reich. Another thing that also bothered Hitler about the media was the stance they took towards Marxism. Some authorities believed that Marxism had become the national way of thinking for the country of Germany. Hitler believed
that their faith in this doctrine lay in the fact that they do not teach how Marxism will destroy the world “especially since this cannot be learned in Jewified universities” (Mein Kampf, 1925, 168). Adolf Hitler also gave hints as to what he believed should be done to these mostly Jewish men who were misleading the country he said “It would have been the duty of a serious government…to exterminate mercilessly the agitators who were misleading the nation” (169). At the time that Hitler was a soldier, he had no urge to talk much about politics. For him, the politicians of the day were more worthless than the everyday steward who performed his daily task without complaint. Adolf said “I had never hated these big-mouths more than now when every red-blooded man with something to say yelled it into the enemy’s face or appropriately left his tongue at home and silently did his duty somewhere” (166). When Hitler became the leader of all of Germany he would make himself the dictator and get rid of all these government men whom he believed were harmful to society as a whole. Hitler would become even more distressed about his country after returning home for a short hospital stay.
After becoming injured in the war, the time spent back in Vienna would only add to the anti-Semitic feelings Adolf Hitler had towards other groups of people with different ideas. While laying in his bed he listened to men brag of injuring themselves in order to escape the war and act like they were the brave ones. Hitler was outraged at these men “who boasted of their shrewdness he noted hypocrisy, egotism, war profiteering”( Mein Kampf, 1925, p. 71). Hitler decided that behind all the appraisal of these terrible ideas was the working of the Jew. Hitler was openly for the unification of Germany and he believed these Jewish men and the politicians and journalists were trying to pull everyone apart for their own gain. Adolf Hitler said that the “Hebrew Corruptors of the people….should be held ‘under poison gas’ and against the politicians and journalists on the other hand…deserved nothing but annihilation. ‘All the implements of military power should have been ruthlessly used for the extermination of this pestilence” (Fest, 1974, pp. 71-72). Everywhere that Adolf Hitler went, he said that he saw Jews filling every office space and that every clerk was a Jew. It disgusted him that the Jewish people were all safe in the town while there were so few Jewish men to be seen fighting along the front lines for their country such as himself. Hitler thought that while the real Germans were off fighting for their country, the Jewish people were at home destroying the economy and plundering the wealth of their country for themselves. Hitler was once again was unable to fit in with society and in the spring of 1917 requested to be transferred back to the military front where he stayed until the end of the war (72)
After being described by so many as the shy and loner type as a child, the life that Hitler led was nothing short of amazing. To be able to lead a nation and inspire millions to follow his every command, words cannot describe the conformation that this man underwent from his younger years into adulthood. Whether it was resisting his overbearing father or seeking comfort with his often too kind mother, there was never a calm moment in Adolf’s life. In order to become the man who would grow to be the leader of the Nazi Party, Adolf Hitler as a child and a young adult would go through many life experiences that would help turn him into one of the most identifiable men of his century.

Works Cited
Hitler, A. (1971). Mein Kampf. ( Ralph Manheim, Trans.). Boston: Houston Mifflin. (Original work published 1925).
Bullock, A. (1962). Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
Fest, J. (1974). Hitler. (Richard Winston &Clara Winston, Trans.). New York: Houghton Mifflin. (Original work published 1973).
The History Place: The Rise of Hitler. (1996). The History Place. Retrieved 27 March 2009 from
Simkin, J. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 27 March 2009 from


Comparison of Stalin and Hitler

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of AUEssays.com.

Even though some people may argue this, it’s a common fact that Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler are one of the two worst villains in history. Stalin murdered millions of people and Hitler murdered millions of people. They both tortured innocent people. They both threatened violence towards the rest of the world. Hitler started the worst war in history. Stalin spread Communism to other countries. Hitler almost wiped out a human race. Stalin slaughtered his own people. Who’s the most hideous person? Stalin was a more hideous person than Hitler.

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Hitler was born to an overprotective mother and an overbearing father. While his mother would shower him with affection, his father barely even acknowledged his existence. His love for Germany started when he was very young. His love for Germany awakened when he moved to Germany and started to play with German children. This love for Germany would never die (Ayer 16). His independence started when he was six when he walked to and from school and dealing with mischievous boys. It was around this time when Hitler’s father was starting to come home drunk every day. He was abused daily by his father because Hitler refused to give in to his father’s demands. In school, he was a leader. One boy quoted “We all liked him, at desk and at play. He had ‘guts’. He wasn’t a hothead, he was a quiet fanatic” (Ayer 19). At thirteen his father passed away suddenly and Hitler became the male head of the house. Hitler was very charismatic. “His words go like an arrow to their target, he touches each private wound on the raw, expressing [people’s] intermost [hopes], telling [them] what [they] most want to hear” (Strasser 65). When at school he took a particular liking to Professor Leopold Potsch. Potsch was a follower of the Volkisch Movement. The movement was a group that believed that the German people were superior to everyone else especially the Jews (Ayer 21). Hitler saw the opera Rienzi and it changed his life forever. His friend, Kubizek, said:

Now he aspired to something higher, something I could not yet fully understand. All this surprised me, because I believed that the [life] of an artist was for him the highest of all goals, the one most striving for. But now he was speaking of an [order] he would one day receive from the people, to lead them out of [slavery] to the heights of freedom. (Ayers 23)

Hitler blamed his own poverty and humiliation on the Jews. It was during World War 1 when he finally did something with his life. He enlisted. War was brilliant to him. He was at home in the trenches. He received the greatest award Germany had to offer. When Germany lost he was completely devastated. It was at this time when he finally got into politics. Hitler became interested and joined the German Workers’ Party. Soon later he changed the name of the party to the NAZI Party. He silenced any high ranking official within the party that didn’t agree with him. He blamed the Jews on all the bad problems in Germany. Hitler was eventually arrested. While he was in jail he wrote Mein Kampf. This would later be the Nazi Bible. Once out of jail he reformed the Nazi Party into something far greater than it ever was. In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor. Soon later he became the sole dictator of Germany. This was only the beginning for Hitler.

Stalin’s childhood was marked with hate. His father would beat him savagely for no reason. This made Stalin grim and heartless. His mother on the other hand spoiled him and always gave excuses for his bad behavior. This made Stalin think at a young age that everything he did was alright. When Stalin was in school he tried to dominate his classmates in everything they did. He studied his classmate’s weaknesses and acted upon their weaknesses to force the other children to accept his leadership. Stalin saw the illiterate tribes of the towering Caucasus Mountains as romantic heroes. They were fierce and stopped at nothing until they got what they want. When he was thirteen he was exposed to scientific thought for the first time. These books made Stalin believe that there was no god. At the age of sixteen, Stalin went to a seminary. While at the seminary he secretly joined a new revolutionary party. He smuggles illegal books into the seminary. It was in these books that Stalin first learned what Communism is by Marx. He was so much against the idea of god he wasn’t able to fake it anymore. His grades went from best to worst in the class and four months before graduation he was expelled. Even though he hated the seminary, it did leave its mark on him. It hardened for the life of a professional revolutionary. He also applied the religious fanaticism to Communism (Archer 19). The seminary’s spy system was the inspiration for his own secret police. On May 1, 1901, Stalin led two thousand railway workers into a bloody clash against the Tsar’s forces. He fled being arrested. He began an outlaw’s life taking on false names and always slipping away from the police. Stalin looked up to and inspired Lenin for having to fill his life with great purpose (Archer 23). On April 5, 1902, he was finally arrested. He viewed this setback as a positive. He began recruiting prisoners into the Social Democratic Party. On January 21, 1905, Stalin announced that the revolution has begun. In 1907, he wife died. This made Stalin even more sarcastic, cold, and vengeful than ever before (Archer 35). It wasn’t until World War I that the revolution won and took over the government of Russia. In 1924 Lenin had died and there was a struggle on who should now rule Russia. After the dust has settled it was the Man of Steel, Joseph Stalin, which began his role of being one of the best rulers in Russia’s history.

There are many people who Hitler hated and wanted to annihilate. Hitler wanted a pure Aryan race. This means he wanted only perfect people. The people must be tall, slender, physically fit, and free of any disability, deformity, abnormality, mental illness, and homosexuality. Above all people Hitler hated he hated the Jews the most. He firmly believed that the Jews were the inferior race. He blamed the Jews for Germany’s defeat in World War I. He believed that Germany would have never lost the war if it wasn’t for the Jews stabbing Germany in the back. In Europe at the time, Jews were known as Communists and to some people Germany was known as a Jewish Country. This was the last thing Hitler wanted his country called.

Stalin hated everyone who was against him and Communism. He always feared for his position in power and for Communism. It didn’t matter if they were political enemies or just civilians who didn’t like communism, Stalin hated them all. Stalin did everything in his power to instill fear into his enemies. He wanted to make sure whoever was against him know that that was a grave and deadly mistake.

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In 1939, Hitler started the worst war in history. Hitler wanted to make a German Empire all throughout Europe and evidentially the world. World War II had over sixty nations involved in it. He wanted superiority over everyone in the world. Hitler wanted to wipe out an entire race. He put Jews in concentration camps. In concentration camps, Jews were tortured, gassed, used as sick experiments, shot, starved, and hung. He wasn’t going to stop until he wiped every single Jew off the face of the world. To Hitler, the Jewish race was nothing but little, annoying animals.

What Stalin did to his own people is sickening. Stalin was a huge fanatic of being patriotic for the motherland. He killed anyone he expected to be a traitor. During World War II, if a soldier took one step backwards to retreat then an officer would shoot them on the spot declaring they were traitors even though in reality they weren’t really traitors. After World War II, Stalin reopened some of the concentration camps and put German civilians in them. Stalin killed anyone that disagreed with him. He executed over forty thousand polish prisoners. If Stalin had a political enemy then the enemy would be taken to a labor and be never seen from again. Conditions in the labor camps have been said are worst then some of the concentration camps Hitler put the Jews in. Stalin wasn’t only ruthless to foreign people he was ruthless towards his own people making them fear him so much they were forced to love him.

Hitler killed six million people. Most of those people were Jews while some were other minorities. Stalin killed over forty thousand polish prisoners and also killed two hundred thousand Georgian civilians. In all Stalin murdered roughly twenty to forty-five million people.

Hitler and Stalin were both extremely evil men who stopped at nothing to achieve what they wanted. They both grew up in hateful homes. They lied and killed to make their way to the top. They both killed millions of people. In all, Stalin was the most hideous one. Even Hitler did many bad things in his life, Stalin definitely out did him. Stalin hated more people, he killed millions and millions of more people then Hitler, and he was more ruthless than the Nazi leader. Stalin was the essence of the devil himself.

Even though some people may argue this, it’s a common fact that Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler are one of the two worst villains in history. Stalin murdered millions of people and Hitler murdered millions of people. They both tortured innocent people. They both threatened violence towards the rest of the world. Hitler started the worst war in history. Stalin spread Communism to other countries. Hitler almost wiped out a human race. Stalin slaughtered his own people. Who’s the most hideous person? Stalin was a more hideous person than Hitler.

Hitler was born to an overprotective mother and an overbearing father. While his mother would shower him with affection, his father barely even acknowledged his existence. His love for Germany started when he was very young. His love for Germany awakened when he moved to Germany and started to play with German children. This love for Germany would never die (Ayer 16). His independence started when he was six when he walked to and from school and dealing with mischievous boys. It was around this time when Hitler’s father was starting to come home drunk every day. He was abused daily by his father because Hitler refused to give in to his father’s demands. In school, he was a leader. One boy quoted “We all liked him, at desk and at play. He had ‘guts’. He wasn’t a hothead, he was a quiet fanatic” (Ayer 19). At thirteen his father passed away suddenly and Hitler became the male head of the house. Hitler was very charismatic. “His words go like an arrow to their target, he touches each private wound on the raw, expressing [people’s] intermost [hopes], telling [them] what [they] most want to hear” (Strasser 65). When at school he took a particular liking to Professor Leopold Potsch. Potsch was a follower of the Volkisch Movement. The movement was a group that believed that the German people were superior to everyone else especially the Jews (Ayer 21). Hitler saw the opera Rienzi and it changed his life forever. His friend, Kubizek, said:

Now he aspired to something higher, something I could not yet fully understand. All this surprised me, because I believed that the [life] of an artist was for him the highest of all goals, the one most striving for. But now he was speaking of an [order] he would one day receive from the people, to lead them out of [slavery] to the heights of freedom. (Ayers 23)

Hitler blamed his own poverty and humiliation on the Jews. It was during World War 1 when he finally did something with his life. He enlisted. War was brilliant to him. He was at home in the trenches. He received the greatest award Germany had to offer. When Germany lost he was completely devastated. It was at this time when he finally got into politics. Hitler became interested and joined the German Workers’ Party. Soon later he changed the name of the party to the NAZI Party. He silenced any high ranking official within the party that didn’t agree with him. He blamed the Jews on all the bad problems in Germany. Hitler was eventually arrested. While he was in jail he wrote Mein Kampf. This would later be the Nazi Bible. Once out of jail he reformed the Nazi Party into something far greater than it ever was. In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor. Soon later he became the sole dictator of Germany. This was only the beginning for Hitler.

Stalin’s childhood was marked with hate. His father would beat him savagely for no reason. This made Stalin grim and heartless. His mother on the other hand spoiled him and always gave excuses for his bad behavior. This made Stalin think at a young age that everything he did was alright. When Stalin was in school he tried to dominate his classmates in everything they did. He studied his classmate’s weaknesses and acted upon their weaknesses to force the other children to accept his leadership. Stalin saw the illiterate tribes of the towering Caucasus Mountains as romantic heroes. They were fierce and stopped at nothing until they got what they want. When he was thirteen he was exposed to scientific thought for the first time. These books made Stalin believe that there was no god. At the age of sixteen, Stalin went to a seminary. While at the seminary he secretly joined a new revolutionary party. He smuggles illegal books into the seminary. It was in these books that Stalin first learned what Communism is by Marx. He was so much against the idea of god he wasn’t able to fake it anymore. His grades went from best to worst in the class and four months before graduation he was expelled. Even though he hated the seminary, it did leave its mark on him. It hardened for the life of a professional revolutionary. He also applied the religious fanaticism to Communism (Archer 19). The seminary’s spy system was the inspiration for his own secret police. On May 1, 1901, Stalin led two thousand railway workers into a bloody clash against the Tsar’s forces. He fled being arrested. He began an outlaw’s life taking on false names and always slipping away from the police. Stalin looked up to and inspired Lenin for having to fill his life with great purpose (Archer 23). On April 5, 1902, he was finally arrested. He viewed this setback as a positive. He began recruiting prisoners into the Social Democratic Party. On January 21, 1905, Stalin announced that the revolution has begun. In 1907, he wife died. This made Stalin even more sarcastic, cold, and vengeful than ever before (Archer 35). It wasn’t until World War I that the revolution won and took over the government of Russia. In 1924 Lenin had died and there was a struggle on who should now rule Russia. After the dust has settled it was the Man of Steel, Joseph Stalin, which began his role of being one of the best rulers in Russia’s history.

There are many people who Hitler hated and wanted to annihilate. Hitler wanted a pure Aryan race. This means he wanted only perfect people. The people must be tall, slender, physically fit, and free of any disability, deformity, abnormality, mental illness, and homosexuality. Above all people Hitler hated he hated the Jews the most. He firmly believed that the Jews were the inferior race. He blamed the Jews for Germany’s defeat in World War I. He believed that Germany would have never lost the war if it wasn’t for the Jews stabbing Germany in the back. In Europe at the time, Jews were known as Communists and to some people Germany was known as a Jewish Country. This was the last thing Hitler wanted his country called.

Stalin hated everyone who was against him and Communism. He always feared for his position in power and for Communism. It didn’t matter if they were political enemies or just civilians who didn’t like communism, Stalin hated them all. Stalin did everything in his power to instill fear into his enemies. He wanted to make sure whoever was against him know that that was a grave and deadly mistake.

In 1939, Hitler started the worst war in history. Hitler wanted to make a German Empire all throughout Europe and evidentially the world. World War II had over sixty nations involved in it. He wanted superiority over everyone in the world. Hitler wanted to wipe out an entire race. He put Jews in concentration camps. In concentration camps, Jews were tortured, gassed, used as sick experiments, shot, starved, and hung. He wasn’t going to stop until he wiped every single Jew off the face of the world. To Hitler, the Jewish race was nothing but little, annoying animals.

What Stalin did to his own people is sickening. Stalin was a huge fanatic of being patriotic for the motherland. He killed anyone he expected to be a traitor. During World War II, if a soldier took one step backwards to retreat then an officer would shoot them on the spot declaring they were traitors even though in reality they weren’t really traitors. After World War II, Stalin reopened some of the concentration camps and put German civilians in them. Stalin killed anyone that disagreed with him. He executed over forty thousand polish prisoners. If Stalin had a political enemy then the enemy would be taken to a labor and be never seen from again. Conditions in the labor camps have been said are worst then some of the concentration camps Hitler put the Jews in. Stalin wasn’t only ruthless to foreign people he was ruthless towards his own people making them fear him so much they were forced to love him.

Hitler killed six million people. Most of those people were Jews while some were other minorities. Stalin killed over forty thousand polish prisoners and also killed two hundred thousand Georgian civilians. In all Stalin murdered roughly twenty to forty-five million people.

Hitler and Stalin were both extremely evil men who stopped at nothing to achieve what they wanted. They both grew up in hateful homes. They lied and killed to make their way to the top. They both killed millions of people. In all, Stalin was the most hideous one. Even Hitler did many bad things in his life, Stalin definitely out did him. Stalin hated more people, he killed millions and millions of more people then Hitler, and he was more ruthless than the Nazi leader. Stalin was the essence of the devil himself.

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Munich (1913-14)

Finally he seems to have given up on his dream to be an artist. Hunger and the need for shelter may have been the motivating factors. Austria like other European countries had conscription laws. Hitler apparently did not want to serve. Thus to avoid military service, he moved to Munich (May 1913). He received a small anount of money from a dyinhg aunt. The Austrian authorities apparently tracked him down. The Munich police pounded on his door and delivered his Austruian dradt notice (January 1914). The draft notice explained that he could seerve a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving Austria to evade military service. The Munich police escorted him to the Austrian Consulate. He returnedc to Austria and eported to Salzburg for duty (February 1914). He failed the medical examination which before the War was more than prerfuntory. As a boy his report cards described his performance in PE as excellebnt, Apoparently his rough existence in Vienna and lack of food had affected his health, The medical report found that he was too weak to carry weapons. He decided to return to Munich. A photograph shows a crowd in Munich's main square reacting to the deckaration of war (August 1914). Hitler can be found in the crowd, overcome with emotion. He then joins the Bavarian Army and somehow passes the physical.


A History of World War Two and Nazi Germany

Considering his origins and his early life, it would be difficult to imagine a more unlikely figure to succeed to the mantle of Bismarck, the Hohenzollern emperors and President Hindenburg than this singular Austrian of peasant stock who was born at half past six on the evening of April 20, 1889, in the Gasthofzum Pommer, a modest inn in the town of Braunau am Inn, across the border from Bavaria.

The place of birth on the Austro-German frontier was to prove significant, for early in his life, as a mere youth, Hitler became obsessed with the idea that there should be no border between these two German-speaking peoples and that they both belonged in the same Reich. So strong and enduring were his feelings that at thirty-five, when he sat in a German prison dictating the book that would become the blueprint for the Third Reich, his very first lines were concerned with the symbolic significance of his birthplace. Mein Kampf begins with these words: Today it seems to me providential that fate should have chosen Braunau am Inn as my birthplace. For this little town lies on the boundary between two German states which we of the younger generation at least have made it our life-work to reunite by every means at our disposal. . . This little city on the border seems to me the symbol of a great mission.

Since the parents of Alois apparently never lived together, even after they were married, the future father of Adolf Hitler grew up with his uncle, who Hitler himself seems to have recognized this. In his youth he confided to the only boyhood friend he had that nothing had ever pleased him as much as his father’s change of names. He told August Kubizek that the name Schicklgruber ”seemed to him so uncouth, so boorish, apart from being so clumsy and unpractical. He found ’Hiedler’ . . . too soft but ’Hitler sounded nice and was easy to remember.” (August Kubizek, The Young Hitler I Knew, p. 40.) though a brother of Johann Georg Hiedler spelled his name differently, being known as Johann von Nepomuk Huetler. In view of the undying hatred which the Nazi Fuehrer would develop from youth on for the Czechs, whose nation he ultimately destroyed, the Christian name is worthy of passing mention. Johann von Nepomuk was the national saint of the Czech people and some historians have seen in a Hitler’s being given this name an indication of Czech blood in the family.


Adolf Hitler The Great

Adolf Hitler was born on 20th April, 1889, in the small Austrian town o f Braunau near the German border. Both Hitler's parents had come from poor peasant families. His father Alois Hitler, the illegitimate son of a housemaid, was an intelligent and ambitious man and later became a senior customs official.

Klara Hitler was Alois' third wife. Alois was twenty-three years older than Klara and already had two children from his previous marriages. Klara and Alois had five children but only Adolf and a younger sister, Paula, survived to become adults.

Alois, who was fifty-one when Adolf was born, was extremely keen for his son to do well in life. Alois did have another son by an earlier marriage but he had been a big disappointment to him and eventually ended up in prison for theft. Alois was a strict father and savagely beat his son if he did not do as he was told.

Hitler did extremely well at primary school and it appeared he had a bright academic future in front of him. He was also popular with other pupils and was much admired for his leadership qualities. He was also a deeply religious child and for a while considered the possibility of becoming a monk.

Competition was much tougher in the larger secondary school and his reaction to not being top of the class was to stop trying. His father was furious as he had high hopes that Hitler would follow his example and join the Austrian civil service when he left school. However, Hitler was a stubborn child and attempts by his parents and teachers to change his attitude towards his studies were unsuccessful.

Hitler also lost his popularity with his fellow pupils. They were no longer willing to accept him as one of their leaders. As Hitler liked giving orders he spent his time with younger pupils. He enjoyed games that involved fighting and he loved re-enacting battles from the Boer War. His favourite game was playing the role of a commando rescuing Boers from English concentration camps.

The only teacher Hitler appeared to like at secondary school was Leopold Potsch, his history master. Potsch, like many people living in Upper Austria, was a German Nationalist. Pots ch told Hitler and his fellow pupils of the German victories over France in 1870 and 1871 and attacked the Austrians for not becoming involved in these triumphs. Otto von Bismarck, the fir st chancellor of the German Empire, was one of Hitler's early historical heroes.


What next for the statues?

Statues of Leopold II should now be housed in museums to teach Belgian history, suggests Mireille-Tsheusi Robert, director of anti-racism NGO Bamko Cran. After all, destroying the iconography of Adolf Hitler did not mean the history of Nazi Germany was forgotten, she points out.

In Kinshasa, the capital of DR Congo, Leopold II's statues were moved to the National Museum.

"Leopold II certainly does not deserve a statue in the public domain," agrees Bambi Ceuppens, scientific commissioner at the Africa Museum. But taking the monument away does not solve the problem of racism, she believes, while creating one museum devoted to the statues would not be useful either.

In DR Congo itself, no-one has really noticed the Belgian protests, says Jules Mulamba, a lawyer in the south-eastern city of Lubambashi. He attributes colonial crimes to the king himself, rather than the Belgian people or state.

Beyond removal of statues, far more work is required to dismantle racism, protesters and black communities argue.

For decades, colonial history has been barely taught in Belgium. Many classrooms still have Hergé's famous cartoon book Tintin in the Congo, with its depictions of black people now commonly accepted as extremely racist.

Belgium's education minister announced this week that secondary schools would teach colonial history from next year.

"It's a good thing that everyone is waking up, looking around and thinking 'is this right?'" says Ms Kayembe.


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Comments:

  1. Dharr

    I specially registered on the forum to say thank you for the information, maybe I can also help you with something?

  2. Tohy

    And that everyone is silent? For me personally, this article caused a storm of emotions ... Let's talk.



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