History of S-40 SS-145 - History

History of S-40 SS-145 - History


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S-40

(SS-145: dp. 854 (surf.), 1,062 (subm.), 1. 219'3", b 20'8"; dr. 15'11" (mean), s. 14.5 k. (surf.), 11 k (subm.); cpl. 42; a. 1 4", 4 21" tt.; cl. S-1)

S-40 (SS-145) was laid down on 5 March 1919 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., San Francisco Calif.; launched on 5 January 1921, sponsored by Mrs. John H. Rosseter, and commissioned on 20 November 1923, Lt. Comdr. E. F. Morrissey in command.

Assigned to Submarine Division 17 on commissioning, S-40 operated off southern California until January 1924, when she proceeded to Panama, thence continued into the Caribbean. Engaging in Fleet Problems II, III, and IV en route to and during her stay there, she returned to San Diego in late March. In May, she completed her final trial runs at San Francisco, then prepared for transfer to the Asiatic Fleet.

S-40 departed San Francisco, with her division, on 17 September and arrived at Manila on 5 November. During the winter of 1925, she conducted exercises in sound and target approaches, crash dives, and torpedo firing in the waters off Luzon. In May, she moved north with her division to Tsingtao, China, and, through the summer, engaged in operations off the China coast. In September, she returned to the Philippines, and, for the next fifteen years, maintained a schedule of overhaul, exercises, and patrols in the Philippines during the winter and operations off China during the summer.

During the summer of 1940, however hostilities on the Asiatic mainland brought a change in her schedule and she conducted increasingly extended "familiarization" cruises among the Philippine Islands and in adjacent waters. With 1941, joint Army-Navy exercises were conducted at Corregidor, and patrols off likely invasion beaches were stepped up.

On 8 December, 7 December east of the International Date Line, S-40 was anchored off Sangley Point alongside the tender Canopus. With the receipt of the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, she was ordered out on patrol. Underway on the 9th, she anchored off Boaya Point, Veradero Bay, on the 10th, and, with a lookout stationed on a nearby hill, watched the approaches to the Verde Island passage between Mindoro and T,uzon. On the 12th, she shifted to an area off Batangas, and, on the 14th, returned to Veradero Bay. On the 18th, she was back at Manila, only to depart again on the 19th to patrol between Botolan Point and Subic Bay. On the 21st, she headed north to intercept a Japanese force reportedly bound for the Lingayen area.

Early on the 23d, S-40 sighted the enemy; fired four torpedos, unsuccessfully, at a transport, then, for much of the remainder of the day, remained submerged, avoiding depth charges dropped by the Japanese screening forces. After dark, she anchored in Agno Bay; made temporary repairs to her hull, engines, pumping system, and port air compressor; then patrolled off Bolinao. On the 29th, she was ordered to head south. Manila and Cavite had become untenable.

On the 30th, three days before Manila and Cavite fell, S-40 departed Luzon and pointed her bow toward the Netherlands East Indies. By midnight on 8 Janary 1942, she was off Makassar, whence she was ordered to Balikpapan for repairs, fuel, and supplies. There, enemy air attacks increased, but repairs were accomplished, fuel was taken on, and limited supplies were received. On the 14th, she took up patrol duties on the North Wateher Mangkalihat line. By the 19th her food supplies were again low, but she continued her efforts to impede the Japanese envelopment of the East Indies. On the 20th, she took up patrol off Balikpapan. On the 25th, she was ordered back to Makassar. Thence, on the 28th, she headed for Soerabaja to join the ABl)A forces operating from that still Allied base.

She arrived at Soerabaja on the north coast of Java on 2 February, her crew frustrated by their attempts to intercept enemy shipping, but with information on tides, currents, navigational aids, and Japanese tactics. Nine days later, she got underway to patrol the northern approaches to Makassar City and intercept Japanese reinforcements expected to move through Makassar Strait and the Flores Sea. Arriving on the 15th she patrolled initially between De Bril bank and the reefs to the south, then shifted to other areas. Her hunting remained unsuccessful.

By the 26th, she was again in need of repairs and was ordered to Exmouth Gulf on the Western Australia coast. There she took on needed supplies and continued on to Fremantle. On 6 March, she sighted a Japanese submarine, but was able neither to attack nor to transmit a message concerning its presence.

On the 9th, S-40 reached Fremantle. During the next month and a half, she underwent overhaul and shifted her base to Brisbane. On 4 May, she departed the Queensland coast for her fourth war patrol. Ordered into the New Britain-New Ireland area, she reconnoitered Deboyne en route and arrived on station on the 16th. On 3 June, she returned to Brisbane again with information, but still scoreless.

At the end of the month, she was underway again. Initially assigned to intercept enemy traffic into the Salamaua-Lae area of New Guinea, she was ordered to the Solomons on 2 July to relieve S-S8, which had been forced to vacate her position off Tulagi. S-40 patrolled between Tulagi and Lunga Roads and off Savo Island fired on a Maru, but did not score; then shifted to the New Georgia-Santa Isabel area to intercept Rabaul shipping. Failing to directly impede Japanese traffic there, she returned to Australia on 29 July.

On 28 August, S-40 again cleared Moreton Bay and moved north. By 4 September, she was off the Gizo Island anchorage. Thence, she crossed the Solomon

Sea to the D'Entrecasteaux group off Papua to impede the movement of enemy reinforcements into Milne Bay. Poor weather and mechanical problems inhibited her hunting; and, still scoreless, she returned to Brisbane on 25 September.

Repairs to S-40's deteriorating main motor cables and attempts to correct fuel leaks into the after battery occupied the next three weeks. On 19 October, she got underway for San Diego and an extensive overhaul. Patrolling in the Gilberts en route, she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 19 November; exchanged her 4-inch gun for a 3-inch gun from Whale and continued on to the west coast, arriving on 7 December. Delays in the delivery of needed equipment slowed the yard work; but on 4 June 1943, she emerged with air conditioning anl more up to date electronic equipment. On the 7th, she moved north, toward the Aleutians, with 60% of her crew new to the Navy and to submarines. She trained en route to Dutch Harbor, whence she departed on her 8th war patrol on the 24th. Further training exercises were carried out prior to reaching Attu, where she topped off and departed again on the 30th, heading for the Kurils. Despite dense fog and heavy seas, she reached the Kamchatka peninsula on 3 July and stood down the coast toward Paramushiro.

Japanese fishermen, with their innumerable nets and set lines, hindered her freedom of movement. Dense fog impeded her hunting. On the 12th, she suffered a steering casualty which was temporarily repaired by the crew; and, on the 31st, she put back into Dutch Harbor.

S-40's ninth war patrol, 12 August-10 September was again conducted in the fog and heavy swells of the northern Kuriles, but was cut short by repeated material failures which included the seemingly ever present problems of deterioration of the main power cables and fuel oil leaks into the after battery.

After voyage repairs, the S-boat was ordered to San Diego and training duty. Reporting to Commander Submarine Squadron 45 on arrival on 3 October, she conducted training operations for the West Coast Sound School and for Fleet Air, West Coast for the remainder of World War II. Then ordered inactivated she shifted to San Francisco where she was stripped and decommissioned on 29 October 1945. Struck from the Navy list on 13 November 1945, she was sold to the Salco Iron and Metal Co., San Francisco, in November 1946 and was scrapped in July 1947.

S-40 earned one battle star during World War II.


S-40 (SS-145)

Decommissioned 29 October 1945.
Stricken 13 November 1945.
Sold in November 1946 to be broken up for scrap.

Commands listed for USS S-40 (145)

Please note that we're still working on this section.

CommanderFromTo
1Richard Cross Lake, USNJan 1939late 1940
2Nicholas Lucker, Jr., USNlate 194010 Aug 1942
3Lt. Francis Michael Gambacorta, USN10 Aug 1942Feb 1944
4William C. Vickery, Jr., USNFeb 194415 Nov 1944
5Ernest F. Wall, USNR15 Nov 194429 Oct 1945

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Notable events involving S-40 include:

8 Dec 1941
USS S-40 (Lt. Nicholas Lucker, Jr.) departed from Manila Bay for her 1st war patrol. She was ordered to patrol the Verde Island Passage.

18 Dec 1941
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) ended her 1st war patrol at Manila Bay.

19 Dec 1941
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) departed from Manila Bay for her 2nd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol to the north of Manila Bay. Later she shifts her patrol area to Lingayen Gulf.

2 Feb 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) ended her 2nd war patrol at Surabaya, Java, Netherlands East Indies.

11 Feb 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) departed from Surabaya for her 3rd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in Makassar Strait.

9 Mar 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) ended her 3rd war patrol at Fremantle, Australia. Later she proceeded to Brisbane.

4 May 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) departed from Brisbane for her 4th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the New Britain / New Ireland area.

3 Jun 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) ended her 4th war patrol at Brisbane.

30 Jun 1942
On or around this date USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) departed from Brisbane for her 5th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Solomons.

29 Jul 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. N. Lucker, Jr.) ended her 5th war patrol at Brisbane.

28 Aug 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. Francis Michel Gambacorta) departed from Brisbane for her 6th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off the Solomons. Later she shifts her patrol area to the D'Entrecasteaux islands.

25 Sep 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) ended her 6th war patrol at Brisbane.

19 Oct 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) departed from Brisbane for her 7th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Gilbert Islands area.

19 Nov 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) ended her 7th war patrol at Pearl Harbor.

7 Dec 1942
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) arrived at San Diego, California for an overhaul.

7 Jun 1943
With her overhaul completed USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) departed from San Diego bound for Dutch Harbour, Alaska.

24 Jun 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) departed from Dutch Harbour for her 8th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off the Kurils.

30 Jun 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) topped up with fuel at Attu.

31 Jul 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) ended her 8th war patrol at Dutch Harbour.

12 Aug 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) departed from Dutch Harbour for her 9th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off the Kurils.

10 Sep 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) ended her 9th war patrol at Dutch Harbour. She is now assigned to training duties.

3 Oct 1943
USS S-40 (Lt. F.M. Gambacorta) arrived at San Diego.

Media links


U. S. Submarines in World War II
Kimmett, Larry and Regis, Margaret


Volvo S40 GEN 1. 1995-2004

The S40 was the result of a joint-venture between Volvo Cars and Mitsubishi the two companies built their own series of cars on a common technical platform side by side in the Dutch NedCar plant. With the S40, Volvo offered the same comfort and safety levels in compact size as the drivers of the larger 850 had already enjoyed for some years.

Soon, the two original versions (with 1.8 and 2.0 litre engines) were supplemented with new economic and exciting models. There was a fuel-thrifty turbodiesel version as well as a high-performance T4 (200 bhp) performance S40 model, which was a worthy successor to classic performance Volvos like the PV544 Sport and the 240 Turbo.

However, the S40 did not only become popular on regular roads - it also became a spectacular racing car which notched up its most remarkable success when Rickard Rydell won the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) in his S40 in 1998. The S40 has also been quite successful in the Swedish Touring Car Championship (STCC).


From the Great Depression and the New Deal to the steady drumbeat of approaching war, the 1930s and early 1940s were eventful years in the United States. This was especially true in Nevada, where the state legislature took two momentous steps in 1931, legalizing wide-open gambling and the six-week divorce. Both actions catapulted the state into the national spotlight, spurring the improvement of tourist accommodations throughout the area and boosting the local economy.

A Landscape of Labor
In the 1930s, the large industrial spaces and yards of East 4th Street began to fill in with new commercial buildings, tying the neighborhood more closely to the rest of the city. Within the space of a few years, the northern side of the block between and Valley and Elko Streets, formerly a lumber storage yard, became a row of businesses including Nevada Welding, the Triangle Produce Company, Union Iron Works, and Allied Equipment.

In the same decade, many existing companies built larger brick warehouses and workplaces in the vicinity, including, just to the north, the Zellerbach Paper Company, and one block east, the IXL Laundry. German immigrant Martin Schwamb founded Martin Iron Works in 1939 at its original location on Morrill Avenue.

Together with the continued operation of Eveleth Lumber, the Flanigan Warehouse, Nevada Packing, and other industries, the area buzzed with local manufacturing. Having survived Prohibition, the Reno Brewing Company constructed an impressive new bottling plant next to its original building in 1940.

Tourism along U.S. 40
When the Bureau of Public Roads first adopted its new numbering system, U.S. 40 ran in a clear line from 4th Street in Reno eastward along the rural County Road to Prater Way. At 15th Street in Sparks, the highway turned south to meet up with B Street (now Victorian Avenue) and then proceeded east through the main commercial district and out of town.

As a result, the entire distance from West 4th Street in Reno through 15th Street in Sparks was dotted with auto camps and auto courts, the precursors to modern motels. The Silver State Lodge and others operated west of Reno, with the largest number located in the open expanse between Reno and Sparks. The Coney Island area was a busy hub, with the Coney Island Auto Camp, the Star Auto Court, and Julius Redelius’ place, now known as The Grove Auto Camp. Closer into Reno, the Central Auto Tourist Camp and All States Tourist Camp operated near Alameda (later Wells) Avenue.

Auto camps also abounded along Prater Way, the name used interchangeably with County Road within Sparks city limits (Prater Way officially became the name of the entire stretch in 1939). In the early 1930s, Mabel Smith operated a tourist camp at 15th Street and Prater that would eventually become the Park Motel, and Deer Park retained a municipal campground until 1933, the same year local businessman George K. Cremer and his wife, Bess, founded Cremer’s Auto Court on Sparks’ western border. At least five other tourist camps operated along Prater Way by the early 1930s.

The busy street might have remained a tourist corridor for years to come, but its trajectory changed forever in 1934 with the decision to straighten the route of U.S. 40 through Sparks. The construction of an extension linking B Street directly to the County Road near Coney Island created the junction now known as the “Y” (where Victorian meets Prater) and took Prater Way off the route of the highway for good. The plan met with protests from area business operators, including the owners of Gepford’s Used Furniture Store, Younghans’ service station, and auto camp operator Mabel Smith, but from that point forward, Prater Way would be oriented primarily toward residents, not the tourist trade.

New Deal Projects along the Corridor
A major incentive for changing the highway’s route in 1934 was the availability of federal funds to help offset the costs. Many New Deal programs, introduced by the federal government to provide the “three Rs” (Relief, Recovery, and Reform) during the Great Depression consisted of road and highway projects, which improved the country’s infrastructure while putting its citizens to work.

In 1934, just over two miles of the Sparks highway, including the new so-called “B Street extension,” were paved in asphalt, giving motorists a four-lane highway, forty feet wide, with an eight-foot parking area on each side. Another project, begun in 1936, constructed a tunnel under the railroad line south of 4th Street, linking Wells Avenue on the south to Alameda Avenue on the north (the entire length was eventually named Wells Avenue). That project also demolished a cattle bridge across the Truckee River that had allowed livestock to be driven to the Nevada Packing Company on 4th Street from the ranches south of the river without going through the heart of downtown Reno.

On the Sparks side, Public Works Administration (PWA) funds enabled the construction of a new building for Robert H. Mitchell Elementary School, until then still housed in its original 1906 structure. The new building opened to much fanfare in 1939. Equally exciting for the community were improvements at Deer Park, including fencing and a brand-new municipal swimming pool, which opened in 1942.

Family Businesses and Community Spaces
Deer Park was not the only recreational space on the corridor in this era. In 1930, Reno Garage owner Jack Threlkel opened a semi-professional baseball park halfway between Reno and Sparks. Although Reno already had a baseball field at Moana Springs, Threlkel’s was said to be the only grass-covered field in the state. Most certainly it was the only one with a chicken and turkey pen in right field. With a wooden stadium and night lighting beginning in 1940, the ballpark drew hundreds of spectators per game and brought in teams from the entire region.

This was a close-knit community, where families could make a living operating small, independent markets, bars, and restaurants. In 1931, John and Elvira Casale opened a fruit stand and added a seating area to it ten years later, eventually naming the place Casale’s Halfway Club for its location between the two towns. By 1944, the Restwell Auto Court was open next door. Just down the road, Ralph Galletti constructed a brick building for his Coney Island Tamale Factory in 1936, adding a lunch room and kitchen. Adjacent to it, LaVerne Sorensen opened the Copenhagen Bar and liquor store.

In this pre-chain era, small markets appeared every few blocks, offering groceries, meats, and supplies to the neighborhoods on either side of Prater Way and north of East 4th Street. Albert R. Cave opened Cave Grocery at the corner of 15th and Prater Way in a rustic rock-covered building formerly housing the Sparks Trading Company. Grant Anderson operated two markets along the corridor: Anderson’s Market at 4th and Alameda, and Pyramid Market at Coney Island and Prater. In Reno, the Hotel Richelieu housed the Lincoln Market on its ground floor until 1936, when it transformed into the popular Lincoln Bar. Across the street, the former Royal Hotel, now called the Marion Hotel, housed the Victory Market, a fine wartime moniker.

A new brick hotel opened up on East 4th Street in 1931, financed by Frank Savage of the local plumbing firm, Savage & Son. At first known as the Bonney Hotel (later renamed the Morris Hotel), the three-story building featured 40 rooms and, in 1941, leased the ground floor to the glamorous Dorothy Romaine Shoppe. The combination of hotel and boutique would no doubt prove enticing to the divorce-seekers thronging to the area to rid themselves of their marital ties.

The War Years
World War II had a clear impact on the corridor, as it did everywhere. Threlkel’s ball park temporarily closed, and businesses throughout the area dedicated themselves to selling war bonds and stamps. By 1944, Dick Wagner of the Wagner Tank and Manufacturing Company had secured enough wartime contracts to purchase the buildings and foundry of the Provo foundry and Machinery Company in Utah and have them dismantled and reassembled across the street from his existing operations in the combined Union Iron Works and Nevada Welding buildings.

The Farmers Exchange, a local co-operative, served as an agent for the War Food Administration, distributing eggs, butter, and other supplies to the armed forces. In the meantime, the Eveleth Lumber Company encouraged local producers to make improvements to their farms and ranches in order to enhance their output for the war effort. Members of Civilian Defense groups watched Red Cross first aid motion pictures in the Robert H. Mitchell Elementary auditorium. After the war, the Tovrea Farm Equipment Co. on East 4th Street offered customers a chance to purchase the first “peace-time Jeeps” in town. After years of hardship and anxiety, a new age of prosperity beckoned.


From the Great Depression and the New Deal to the steady drumbeat of approaching war, the 1930s and early 1940s were eventful years in the United States. This was especially true in Nevada, where the state legislature took two momentous steps in 1931, legalizing wide-open gambling and the six-week divorce. Both actions catapulted the state into the national spotlight, spurring the improvement of tourist accommodations throughout the area and boosting the local economy.

A Landscape of Labor
In the 1930s, the large industrial spaces and yards of East 4th Street began to fill in with new commercial buildings, tying the neighborhood more closely to the rest of the city. Within the space of a few years, the northern side of the block between and Valley and Elko Streets, formerly a lumber storage yard, became a row of businesses including Nevada Welding, the Triangle Produce Company, Union Iron Works, and Allied Equipment.

In the same decade, many existing companies built larger brick warehouses and workplaces in the vicinity, including, just to the north, the Zellerbach Paper Company, and one block east, the IXL Laundry. German immigrant Martin Schwamb founded Martin Iron Works in 1939 at its original location on Morrill Avenue.

Together with the continued operation of Eveleth Lumber, the Flanigan Warehouse, Nevada Packing, and other industries, the area buzzed with local manufacturing. Having survived Prohibition, the Reno Brewing Company constructed an impressive new bottling plant next to its original building in 1940.

Tourism along U.S. 40
When the Bureau of Public Roads first adopted its new numbering system, U.S. 40 ran in a clear line from 4th Street in Reno eastward along the rural County Road to Prater Way. At 15th Street in Sparks, the highway turned south to meet up with B Street (now Victorian Avenue) and then proceeded east through the main commercial district and out of town.

As a result, the entire distance from West 4th Street in Reno through 15th Street in Sparks was dotted with auto camps and auto courts, the precursors to modern motels. The Silver State Lodge and others operated west of Reno, with the largest number located in the open expanse between Reno and Sparks. The Coney Island area was a busy hub, with the Coney Island Auto Camp, the Star Auto Court, and Julius Redelius’ place, now known as The Grove Auto Camp. Closer into Reno, the Central Auto Tourist Camp and All States Tourist Camp operated near Alameda (later Wells) Avenue.

Auto camps also abounded along Prater Way, the name used interchangeably with County Road within Sparks city limits (Prater Way officially became the name of the entire stretch in 1939). In the early 1930s, Mabel Smith operated a tourist camp at 15th Street and Prater that would eventually become the Park Motel, and Deer Park retained a municipal campground until 1933, the same year local businessman George K. Cremer and his wife, Bess, founded Cremer’s Auto Court on Sparks’ western border. At least five other tourist camps operated along Prater Way by the early 1930s.

The busy street might have remained a tourist corridor for years to come, but its trajectory changed forever in 1934 with the decision to straighten the route of U.S. 40 through Sparks. The construction of an extension linking B Street directly to the County Road near Coney Island created the junction now known as the “Y” (where Victorian meets Prater) and took Prater Way off the route of the highway for good. The plan met with protests from area business operators, including the owners of Gepford’s Used Furniture Store, Younghans’ service station, and auto camp operator Mabel Smith, but from that point forward, Prater Way would be oriented primarily toward residents, not the tourist trade.

New Deal Projects along the Corridor
A major incentive for changing the highway’s route in 1934 was the availability of federal funds to help offset the costs. Many New Deal programs, introduced by the federal government to provide the “three Rs” (Relief, Recovery, and Reform) during the Great Depression consisted of road and highway projects, which improved the country’s infrastructure while putting its citizens to work.

In 1934, just over two miles of the Sparks highway, including the new so-called “B Street extension,” were paved in asphalt, giving motorists a four-lane highway, forty feet wide, with an eight-foot parking area on each side. Another project, begun in 1936, constructed a tunnel under the railroad line south of 4th Street, linking Wells Avenue on the south to Alameda Avenue on the north (the entire length was eventually named Wells Avenue). That project also demolished a cattle bridge across the Truckee River that had allowed livestock to be driven to the Nevada Packing Company on 4th Street from the ranches south of the river without going through the heart of downtown Reno.

On the Sparks side, Public Works Administration (PWA) funds enabled the construction of a new building for Robert H. Mitchell Elementary School, until then still housed in its original 1906 structure. The new building opened to much fanfare in 1939. Equally exciting for the community were improvements at Deer Park, including fencing and a brand-new municipal swimming pool, which opened in 1942.

Family Businesses and Community Spaces
Deer Park was not the only recreational space on the corridor in this era. In 1930, Reno Garage owner Jack Threlkel opened a semi-professional baseball park halfway between Reno and Sparks. Although Reno already had a baseball field at Moana Springs, Threlkel’s was said to be the only grass-covered field in the state. Most certainly it was the only one with a chicken and turkey pen in right field. With a wooden stadium and night lighting beginning in 1940, the ballpark drew hundreds of spectators per game and brought in teams from the entire region.

This was a close-knit community, where families could make a living operating small, independent markets, bars, and restaurants. In 1931, John and Elvira Casale opened a fruit stand and added a seating area to it ten years later, eventually naming the place Casale’s Halfway Club for its location between the two towns. By 1944, the Restwell Auto Court was open next door. Just down the road, Ralph Galletti constructed a brick building for his Coney Island Tamale Factory in 1936, adding a lunch room and kitchen. Adjacent to it, LaVerne Sorensen opened the Copenhagen Bar and liquor store.

In this pre-chain era, small markets appeared every few blocks, offering groceries, meats, and supplies to the neighborhoods on either side of Prater Way and north of East 4th Street. Albert R. Cave opened Cave Grocery at the corner of 15th and Prater Way in a rustic rock-covered building formerly housing the Sparks Trading Company. Grant Anderson operated two markets along the corridor: Anderson’s Market at 4th and Alameda, and Pyramid Market at Coney Island and Prater. In Reno, the Hotel Richelieu housed the Lincoln Market on its ground floor until 1936, when it transformed into the popular Lincoln Bar. Across the street, the former Royal Hotel, now called the Marion Hotel, housed the Victory Market, a fine wartime moniker.

A new brick hotel opened up on East 4th Street in 1931, financed by Frank Savage of the local plumbing firm, Savage & Son. At first known as the Bonney Hotel (later renamed the Morris Hotel), the three-story building featured 40 rooms and, in 1941, leased the ground floor to the glamorous Dorothy Romaine Shoppe. The combination of hotel and boutique would no doubt prove enticing to the divorce-seekers thronging to the area to rid themselves of their marital ties.

The War Years
World War II had a clear impact on the corridor, as it did everywhere. Threlkel’s ball park temporarily closed, and businesses throughout the area dedicated themselves to selling war bonds and stamps. By 1944, Dick Wagner of the Wagner Tank and Manufacturing Company had secured enough wartime contracts to purchase the buildings and foundry of the Provo foundry and Machinery Company in Utah and have them dismantled and reassembled across the street from his existing operations in the combined Union Iron Works and Nevada Welding buildings.

The Farmers Exchange, a local co-operative, served as an agent for the War Food Administration, distributing eggs, butter, and other supplies to the armed forces. In the meantime, the Eveleth Lumber Company encouraged local producers to make improvements to their farms and ranches in order to enhance their output for the war effort. Members of Civilian Defense groups watched Red Cross first aid motion pictures in the Robert H. Mitchell Elementary auditorium. After the war, the Tovrea Farm Equipment Co. on East 4th Street offered customers a chance to purchase the first “peace-time Jeeps” in town. After years of hardship and anxiety, a new age of prosperity beckoned.


Asiatic Fleet USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_2

Assigned to Submarine Division 17 on commissioning, S-40 operated off southern California until January 1924, when she proceeded to Panama, thence continued into the Caribbean Sea. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_3

Engaging in Fleet Problems II, III, and IV en route to and during her stay there, she returned to San Diego, California, in late March. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_4

In May, she completed her final trial runs at San Francisco, then prepared for transfer to the Asiatic Fleet. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_5

S-40 departed San Francisco, with her division, on 17 September and arrived at Manila on 5 November. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_6

During the winter of 1925, she conducted exercises in sound and target approaches, crash dives, and torpedo firing in the waters off Luzon. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_7

In May, she moved north with her division to Tsingtao, China, and, through the summer, engaged in operations off the China coast. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_8

In September, she returned to the Philippines, and, for the next fifteen years, maintained a schedule of overhaul, exercises, and patrols in the Philippines during the winter and operations off China during the summer. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_9

During the summer of 1940, however, hostilities on the Asiatic mainland brought a change in her schedule and she conducted increasingly extended "familiarization" cruises among the Philippine Islands and in adjacent waters. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_10

With 1941, joint United States Army-United States Navy exercises were conducted at Corregidor, and patrols off likely invasion beaches were stepped up. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_11

World War II USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_3

First and Second War Patrols, December 1941 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_4

On 8 December (7 December east of the International Date Line) S-40 was anchored off Sangley Point alongside the submarine tender USS Canopus. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_12

With the receipt of the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, she was ordered out on patrol. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_13

Under the command of Lieut. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_14

Nicholas Lucker, Jr. on 9 December, she anchored off Boaya Point, Veradero Bay, on 10 December, and, with a lookout stationed on a nearby hill, watched the approaches to the Verde Island passage between Mindoro and Luzon. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_15

On 12 December, she shifted to an area off Batangas, and, on 14 December, returned to Veradero Bay. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_16

On 18 December, she was back at Manila, only to depart again on 19 December to patrol between Botolan Point and Subic Bay. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_17

On 21 December, she headed north to intercept a Japanese force reportedly bound for the Lingayen area. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_18

Early on 23 December, S-40 sighted the enemy fired four torpedoes, unsuccessfully, at a transport, then, for much of the remainder of the day, remained submerged, avoiding depth charges dropped by the Japanese screening forces. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_19

After dark, she anchored in Agno Bay made temporary repairs to her hull, engines, pumping system, and port air compressor then patrolled off Bolinao. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_20

On 29 December, she was ordered to head south. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_21

Manila and Cavite had become untenable. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_22

Escape from the Philippines USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_5

On 30 December, three days before Manila and Cavite fell, S-40 departed Luzon and pointed her bow toward the Netherlands East Indies. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_23

By midnight on 8 January 1942, she was off Makassar, whence she was ordered to Balikpapan for repairs, fuel, and supplies. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_24

There, enemy air attacks increased, but repairs were accomplished, fuel was taken on, and limited supplies were received. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_25

On 14 January, she took up patrol duties on the North Watcher-Mangkalihat line. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_26

By 19 January, her food supplies were again low, but she continued her efforts to impede the Japanese envelopment of the East Indies. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_27

On 20 January, she took up patrol off Balikpapan. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_28

On 25 January, she was ordered back to Makassar. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_29

Thence, on 28 January, she headed for Soerabaja to join the American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) forces operating from that still-Allied base. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_30

Third War Patrol, February 1942 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_6

She arrived at Soerabaja on the north coast of Java on 2 February, her crew frustrated by their attempts to intercept enemy shipping, but with information on tides, currents, navigational aids, and Japanese tactics. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_31

Nine days later, she got underway to patrol the northern approaches to Makassar City and intercept Japanese reinforcements expected to move through Makassar Strait and the Flores Sea. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_32

Arriving on 15 February, she patrolled initially between De Bril bank and the reefs to the south, then shifted to other areas. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_33

Her hunting remained unsuccessful. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_34

By 26 February, she was again in need of repairs and was ordered to Exmouth Gulf on the Western Australia coast. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_35

There, she took on needed supplies and continued on to Fremantle. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_36

On 6 March, she sighted a Japanese submarine, but was able neither to attack nor to transmit a message concerning its presence. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_37

Fourth War Patrol, May 1942 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_7

On 9 March, S-40 reached Fremantle. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_38

During the next month and a half, she underwent overhaul and shifted her base to Brisbane, Queensland. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_39

On 4 May, she departed the Queensland coast for her fourth war patrol. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_40

Ordered into the New Britain-New Ireland area, she reconnoitered Deboyne en route and arrived on station on 16 May. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_41

On 3 June, she returned to Brisbane again with information, but still scoreless. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_42

Fifth War Patrol, June 1942 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_8

At the end of the month, she was underway again. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_43

Initially assigned to intercept enemy traffic into the Salamaua-Lae area of New Guinea, she was ordered to the Solomon Islands on 2 July to relieve S-38, which had been forced to vacate her position off Tulagi. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_44

S-40 patrolled between Tulagi and Lunga Roads and off Savo Island fired on a maru, but did not score then shifted to the New Georgia-Santa Isabel area to intercept Rabaul shipping. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_45

Failing to directly impede Japanese traffic there, she returned to Australia on 29 July. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_46

Sixth War Patrol, August 1942 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_9

On 28 August, S-40 again cleared Moreton Bay and moved north. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_47

By 4 September, she was off the Gizo Island anchorage. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_48

Thence, she crossed the Solomon Sea to the D'Entrecasteaux Islands off Papua to impede the movement of enemy reinforcements into Milne Bay. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_49

Poor weather and mechanical problems inhibited her hunting and, still scoreless, she returned to Brisbane on 25 September. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_50

Seventh War Patrol, October 1942 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_10

Repairs to S-40’s deteriorating main motor cables and attempts to correct fuel leaks into the after battery occupied the next three weeks. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_51

On 19 October, she got underway for San Diego and an extensive overhaul. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_52

Patrolling in the Gilbert Islands en route, she arrived at Pearl Harbor on 19 November exchanged her four-inch (102 mm) gun for a three-inch (76 mm) gun from submarine Whale and continued on to the west coast, arriving on 7 December. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_53

Delays in the delivery of needed equipment slowed the yard work but on 4 June 1943, she emerged with air conditioning and more up to date electronic equipment. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_54

Eighth War Patrol, June 1943 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_11

On 7 June, she moved north, toward the Aleutian Islands, with 60% of her crew new to the Navy and to submarines. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_55

She trained en route to Dutch Harbor, whence she departed on her eighth war patrol on 24 June. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_56

Further training exercises were carried out prior to reaching Attu, where she topped off and departed again on 30 June, heading for the Kuril Islands. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_57

Despite dense fog and heavy seas, she reached the Kamchatka peninsula on 3 July and stood down the coast toward Paramushiro. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_58

Japanese fishermen, with their innumerable nets and set lines, hindered her freedom of movement. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_59

Dense fog impeded her hunting. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_60

On 12 July, she suffered a steering casualty which was temporarily repaired by the crew and, on 31 July, she put back into Dutch Harbor. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_61

Ninth War Patrol, August 1943 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_12

S-40’s ninth war patrol, from 12 August to 10 September, was again conducted in the fog and heavy swells of the northern Kurile Islands, but was cut short by repeated material failures which included the seemingly ever present problems of deterioration of the main power cables and fuel oil leaks into the after battery. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_62

Training ship, 1943-1945 USS S-40 (SS-145)_section_13

After voyage repairs, the S-boat was ordered to San Diego and training duty. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_63

Reporting to Commander, Submarine Squadron 45 on arrival on 3 October 1943, she conducted training operations for the West Coast Sound School and for Fleet Air, West Coast for the remainder of World War II. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_64

Then ordered inactivated, she shifted to San Francisco where she was stripped and decommissioned on 29 October 1945. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_65

Struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 13 November 1945, she was sold to the Salco Iron and Metal Company of San Francisco in November 1946 and was scrapped in July 1947. USS S-40 (SS-145)_sentence_66


Comments

A few more dates to bear in mind, when Border's downtown store added music in 1991, Schoolkids, SKR Classical and Discount Records each closed. Capitalism and legacy don't have a lot to do with each other. Pay attention to your customers and innovate or die. I do mourn the early days of Borders when I could walk into the computer book section on State St. and have the buyer steer me to just the book I needed. My career benefited markedly by that guidance. But its hard to pity serial bad management decisions and repeatedly turning their back on the roots.

I was disappointed that the original Borders store on State St was not given more space in this timeline. To those of us who remember it, it was like going to a shrine - the first bookstore where you could sit down, relax, not feel pressured - and measure your time in dollars per minute. It was a destination and part of what made the Ann Arbor book scene unique.

This should be a warning to the bookstore business. Borders reckless expansion caused much of its problems, but online innovation could also be the next knockout blow. Barnes and Noble should be cautious in their approach. While they are much better managed than Borders and wisely did not purchase the latter company they are not immune to the online onslaught.

A couple of important milestones that would be interesting (and relevant) to include would be: Beginning sales of eReaders (such as Kindle) Arrival of Napster Launch of iPod and iTunes Launch of Netflix Launch of Amazon All of those events helped to act as killer technologies for all of Borders sales channels.

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Gardena is incorporated as a city. The U.S. Census records 1,238,048 people in the City of Los Angeles and 2,208,492 people for all Los Angeles County. Snow blankets Los Angeles. The Greek Theater opens in Griffith Park. Olvera Street opens to the public after a successful rebuilding and renovation campaign led by Mrs. Christine Sterling. The street is named after Augustin Olvera, Los Angeles’ first county judge. Mines Field (present-day Los Angeles International Airport, LAX) is dedicated and opens as the airport for Los Angeles. Major airline traffic, however, continues operating at United Airport in Burbank (present-day Hollywood Burbank Airport) and Grand Central Airport in Glendale. Los Angeles voters agree to spend $12 million in bonds to buy out most of the town properties in Big Pine and Bishop in the Owens Valley, thus ending the Owens Valley water wars. Pilot Laura Ingalls lands in Glendale to become the first woman to fly solo across the United States.

Postcard showing Olvera Street, Los Angeles, circa 1930-1945. Courtesy of the Tichnor Brothers collection at Boston Public Library & Wikimedia Commons.

The Los Angeles city flag is adopted by ordinance. Aggressive mass round-ups and "repatriations" (deportations) of 12,600 Mexican residents in Los Angeles County begin at La Placita in Olvera Street. Los Angeles County deputies and Federal officers spread out throughout East Los Angeles to stop and detain persons and call people out to surrender to authorities. Although most deportees are immigrants earlier recruited to work in the U.S. or refugees from the Mexican Revolution some decades before, a number are actually American citizens.


Mexican deportees at Central Station in Los Angeles bound for Mexico, 1932. Courtesy of the Herald-Examiner Collection at the Los Angeles Public Library.

The Tenth Olympic Games opens in Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was enlarged to seat 105,000 spectators. Construction of the Colorado River Aqueduct begins. Amelia Earhart Putnam takes off from Los Angeles to make the first solo nonstop transcontinental flight across the United States by a woman. Her flight ends in Newark, New Jersey.


Opening ceremonies of the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles. Courtesy of the Organizing Committee of the Games of the Xth Olympiad & Library of Congress.

The Los Angeles Sentinel, an African American newspaper, is first published. The 6.4-magnitude Long Beach Earthquake leaves 120 people dead and $50 million in damage. The Mineral Wells Canyon fire claims the lives of 36 men fighting the fire. Los Angeles County General Hospital opens. The Spring Street Newsboys' Gym opened and later become known as the Main Street Gym. This facility became the premier training ground for Los Angeles boxers until the owner's death in the 1970s.


Earthquake damage in Long Beach from the 1933 Earthquake. Contributed by the Griffin Family, courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Oklahoma dustbowl refugees in San Fernando, 1935. Photo by Dorothea Lange, courtesy of the Farm Security Administration & Office of War Information & Library of Congress.

Floodwaters in the La Crescenta Valley and Montrose Territory take at least 45 lives. The Los Angeles Police Department begins using radio equipment. The Santa Anita Park Race Track opens. Writer and social activist Upton Sinclair begins his unsuccessful run for the governor’s seat. The tactics used by his opposition marks this campaign as California’s first "dirty" political campaign. The Farmers Market opens. Construction on Parker Dam begins. The Pico Drive-In Theater opens at Pico and Westwood Boulevards. It is the first drive-in theater in California and the fourth in the nation.


Fairfax Farmer's Market produce display. Los Angeles Almanac Photo.

Griffith Observatory is completed under a bequest left by Colonel Griffith J. Griffith in 1919. By invitation of the Mexican government, Amelia Earhart Putnam takes off from Los Angeles to become the first person to fly solo from Los Angeles to Mexico City. The Douglas Aircraft Company rolls out the first DC-3 aircraft.


Present-day Griffith Observatory, constructed from 1933-1935. Photo by David Bransby, Office of War Information, courtesy of Library of Congress.

Los Angeles sends 130 city police officers to the California-Nevada state line in an attempt to stem the flow of unemployed Los Angeles-bound hitchhikers. Electricity from Boulder Dam reaches Los Angeles.


Transients directed away from Los Angeles County by police. Photo by Dorothea Lange, courtesy of the Farm Security Administration & Office of War Information & Library of Congress.

The home of Clifford Clinton, a crusading reformer and Los Angeles cafeteria owner, is bombed in an attempt to halt his inquiries into corruption in City Hall and police department. The City of Los Angeles purchases Mines Field to be its official municipal airfield. Nevertheless, major airline traffic continues operating from the airports in Burbank (Union Air Terminal or present-day Hollywood Burbank Airport) and Glendale (Grand Central Airport). At the height of a statewide rabies epidemic, Los Angeles County establishes a Pound Department, created in direct response to 1,700 rabies cases reported in the county during the year. AFter struggling to succeed in film backlot jobs in Hollywood and running a movie theater in Glendora, Dick and Mac McDonald open an octogonal-shaped food stand in Monrovia named the "Airdrome." They would move the structure three years later 40 miles to San Bernardino and launch their first version of a "McDonald's" eatery.


Concrete Channel of the Los Angeles River. Courtesy of the Historic American Engineering Record & Library of Congress.

Palos Verdes Estates is incorporated as a city. Union Station opens. Upton Sinclair runs for governor on the EPIC (End Poverty in California) platform. The media turns against him, leading to his defeat. Nathanael West publishes his novel Day of the Locust, a pessimistic look at Los Angeles. Raymond Chandler publishes the first of his detective novels set in Los Angeles, The Big Sleep.


Rail passengers at Union Station, 1944. Courtesy of the Historic American Buildings Survey & Library of Congress.

The U.S. Census records 1,504,277 people in the City of Los Angeles and 2,785,643 people for all Los Angeles County. A six-mile stretch of the Arroyo Seco Parkway (Pasadena Freeway) is opened, becoming the first freeway in the western United States. Mexican Americans become the largest ethnic minority group in Los Angeles. Los Angeles becomes the largest commercial fishing port in the nation. The Sepulveda Flood Basin and Dam is completed.


Arroyo Seco Parkway (Pasadena Freeway 110), 1940. Courtesy of the California Department of Transportation.

The Los Angeles River overflows and causes floods. The Colorado River Aqueduct is completed and would become the single largest source of water for the Los Angeles area. A Los Angeles City ordinance changes the name of Mines Field to Los Angeles Airport. Hansen Dam is completed.


California Aqueduct. Photo by Jet Lowe & Historic American Engineering Survery, courtesy of Library of Congress.

Producing P38 fighter aircraft in a Burbank aircraft plant, 1942. Photo by David Bransby, Office of War Information, courtesy of Library of Congress.

The Los Angeles River overflows and causes floods. President Franklin Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 requiring the movement of over 100,000 Japanese Americans to internment camps. There they remain until January 20, 1945. In the early morning hours of February 25th, U.S. Army anti-aircraft guns fire nearly 1,500 rounds into the skies over Los Angeles at "enemy aircraft." Evidence of the appearance of any such aircraft is never found. Japanese American employees of the Los Angeles Police Department are removed from their jobs and sent to the internment camps. A Mexican American youth, Jose Diaz, is found murdered in a deep swimming hole named Sleepy Lagoon. Police declare war on Mexican American gangs by arresting hundreds of Mexican American youths. Seventeen of the youths are convicted of the murder on scant evidence. The Appellate Court later reverses the convictions and the original trial judge and prosecutor are severely reprimanded. A federal program brings Mexican agricultural laborers - braceros - into Los Angeles to make up for labor shortages.


Japanese American women and children being removed from Los Angeles Harbor, 1942. Photo by U.S. War Relocation Authority, courtesy of Library of Congress.

The Los Angeles River overflows and causes floods. Several days of one-sided rioting erupts as hundreds of military men descend upon East Los Angeles to assault Mexican Americans dressed in "Zoot suits". Police respond by arresting the Mexican American victims. The rioting ends when military commanders confine their personnel to base. The Los Angeles City government, in an unapologetic mood, proceeds to outlaw the wearing of "zoot suits." Los Angeles experiences its first smog attack (July 26).

The Los Angeles River overflows and causes floods. Harry Chandler, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, dies. His son Norman assumes control of the publishing empire. The San Bernardino Freeway (10) opens.


An eight-month strike by a major film studio workers union polarizes the Hollywood community. Strike tensions lead to a violent riot at Warner Brothers Studio gates in Burbank. Preacher Aimee Semple McPherson dies from a sleeping pill overdose.


Aerial view of Los Angeles City Hall looking south, 1945. Courtesy of Airscapes, War Department & the National Archives.


O.S. – What a History

There is so much more history to be told, but that gives you a little dose of how O.S. began and how far they’ve come. Should it be any wonder why they’re considered among the best, most reliable engines in the world? And with that kind of history, is it any wonder that O.S. holds the record for most IFMAR 1/8 Scale World Championship wins of any brand?

That record continued in 2014 when Ty Tessmann powered to the IFMAR Worlds podium with the O.S. Speed B2101, paired with the performance-boosting T-2090SC Tuned Pipe. And 2015 is shaping up to be a good as well!

It includes faster acceleration off the starting line and out of corner’s…a low CG for stability and predictable handling…and throttle response so immediate, the power seems to flow right from your fingers.

Designed specifically for maximum power output, performance and tune-ability in 1/8 scale buggy applications. Machined cylinder head with laser-etched Speed Tuned graphics lowers the center of gravity and improves cooling. Features a DLC-coated crankshaft balanced with tungsten weights and the efficient, reliable 21J carburetor.


SARASOTA HISTORY

Some question seems to exist as to a definite origin of the name “Sarasota”. Legend connects it with Sara, reputedly the daughter of the conquistador, DeSoto. Some have wondered if the name may have originated with an Indian word “sara-se-cota”, meaning a landfall easily observed. Maps in the 1700’s showed the area as “Porte Sarasote” and “Sarazota”. It is also said a fishing camp and Indian trading post at the end of Longboat Key was called “Saraxota”.

/>Use of the name “Sarasota” appears on the first complete maps of Florida printed by the government in 1839, 18 years after the Floridas passed to the United States following ownership by both the Spanish and the British. Long before the name came into question, Indians had discovered the lush area and knew the bounty of the abundant wild fruits and game in the vicinity. Fishermen and traders were not infrequent visitors to the area. Clashes between the whites and Indians in Florida eventually led to the ruinous seven-year Seminole War. It was at the conclusion of the hostilities that Congress adopted the Armed Occupation Act – deeding 160 acres and six months provisions to any person who agreed to carry arms and protect the land for five years. Additional land was available at $1.25 per acre.

The first permanent white settler in the Sarasota area was William H. Whitaker, who was deeded 144.81 acres on September 1,1851, on Sarasota Bay. Mr. Whitaker, for whom the Whitaker Bayou is named, built his log cabin at “Yellow Bluffs”, so named because of its outcroppings of yellow limestone. The Whitaker cabin was burned to the ground by Seminole raiders in 1865. During the Civil War, raids made life too hazardous and the Whitakers moved northward to Manatee where they stayed until the war ended. The decade and a half between 1868 and 1883, resulted in the initial “large scale” discovery by outsiders of the richness of the Sarasota area. Acreage was cleared by early settlers, orange groves and gardens planted, and herds of cattle joined the Whitaker herd on the rich grazing plains.

John Webb moved to the area during this period and opened the first “manufacturing plant” to refine sugar and to produce syrup. Webb also built the first Winter resort with individual guest cottages – advertised in northern newspapers as a special paradise – Webb’s Winter Resort on Little Sarasota Bay. (Today’s Historic Spanish Point.) A small community grew up in Webb’s neighborhood and in 1884, he applied for a post office. The community was named Osprey in accordance with his wishes. The Jesse Knight family settled further down the bay in the area that eventually became the sister communities of Venice and Nokomis. Isaac A. Redd, who had lived in the area in 1857 prior to the war, returned 10 years later to become the founder of Bee Ridge. In 1876, Redd led a movement to establish a missionary Baptist church, which became the first church built in what was to become Sarasota County.

Early in the 1870’s, a community began to take shape on the mainland between Hudson Bayou and Phillippi Creek. A post office was established in 1878, and operated under the community named “Sara Sota”. It was in this new community that Miss Caroline Abbe established the first school with an initial enrollment of a dozen students, all taught in private homes prior to a school building being built.
In the late 1870’s, the orange industry began to attract attention and the citrus industry established a community called “Fruitville”, with Charles L. Reeves as the first homesteading settler in 1876. The Swampland Act, through a loophole, reduced drastically the effectiveness of the Homestead Act and practically halted the influx of settlers. By the end of 1883, nearly 700,000 acres had been deeded to land speculators for as little as 25 cents an acre. But with the halt of the rugged pioneers, a new type of colonization was attempted.
The Florida Mortgage and Investment Company of Edinburgh purchased 60,000 acres and selected Sara Sota as the key point for its development. Scottish colonists arrived in December of 1885, but sorrow and hardships left them disenchanted with their new land. In 1886, the colony had dwindled to only three families, plus a few individuals.

In that same year, John W. Gillespie arrived, and his company, Florida Mortgage and Investment Co., Ltd., would make an attempt to revive the colony. Steamship connections were established with Tampa. Mr. Gillespie built the De Soto Hotel, and he laid out what was perhaps the first practice golf course in America.
Fishing as an industry began to flourish. Channels were dredged in a move to improve water commerce and shipping. The Spanish-American War in 1898 added to the prosperity, as cattleman drove herds to slaughter to supply meat for the hungry soldiers.
Sarasota got its first newspaper in 1899. In November of that same year, telephone service arrived. A line from Manatee to Sarasota was installed by the Gulf Coast Telephone Company. A year later the line was extended to Fruitville and then Myakka.
The Seaboard Railroad extended its line from Tampa to Sarasota at least five years earlier than it had planned, motivated by the news that Ralph Caples, a well-known railroad entrepreneur, indicated that he planned to build the line himself following his honeymoon vacation to Sarasota in 1899.
Sarasota was incorporated as a town on October 14, 1902, and Mr. Gillespie served as the Town’s first Mayor. He was subsequently elected to five additional one year terms. In addition to the railroad connection, the town boasted a yacht club, a new school, and ice plant, a cemetery, theater, municipal water works, electric plant, a second newspaper, and a sanitarium opened by John Halton in 1908.


Sarasota Key was changed to Siesta Key in 1907, but it wasn’t until 10 years later that the new Siesta Bridge opened up the island to any significant development.
Mrs. Potter Palmer and her family visited Sarasota in 1910. They liked the location so much they decided to purchase some 80,000 acres in the area which was at that time part of south Manatee County. She established her cattle ranch called “Meadow Sweet Pastures” after building her home named “The Oaks” on the old Webb property on Little Sarasota Bay in Osprey.


John and Charles Ringling, of the famous circus family, invested in Sarasota property two years later, just a year before Sarasota was incorporated as a city on May 13, 1913.
Tourists were now coming in a steady stream. This new influx of tourism, and the extensive Palmer and Ringling investments, stirred new interests among the residents and thus began the drive to separate from Manatee County and establish a distinct identity as a whole new county. Sarasota County was established in 1921.

When the Florida land boom ended, Sarasota had three large modern hotels, a high class business district, scores of apartment houses, hundreds of fine new homes, 77 miles of paved streets, a municipal golf course, a hospital, a good school system, bridges running from the keys to the mainland, and improved rail and boat transportation systems.
In the tough years of the Great Depression, Sarasota received its first Works Progress Administration (WPA) project in 1935, which funded a drainage project for the city golf course. Two years later, in 1937, came the an even more valuable WPA project – development of Bayfront Park and construction of the Municipal Auditorium, and later, the Lido Beach Casino was opened.

Work on the Manatee-Sarasota Airport was started in 1938. The airport became a military airfield during World War II, with 3,000 servicemen stationed there. The end of the war served to open the area even further through an ever expanding tourism industry.
Spectacular growth during the “Stunning Sixties” carried through well into the seventies. The recession in the late 󈨊s resulted in tough times for some area businesses. Sarasota’s Downtown was hit hardest with many of the existing stores closing their doors. However, in the late 󈨔s and especially the early 󈨞s the economy shifted and the Downtown began to prosper again. Sarasota now boasts one the finest downtowns in the State of Florida.

CHAIR
Harry Klinkhamer
VICE CHAIR
Dr. Frank Cassell
TREASURER
Dorothy Korwek
RECORDING SECRETARY
Betty Intagliata
COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER
Laura Dean


Watch the video: Berlin in July 1945 HD 1080p color footage


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